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EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT 

IN 

RAJASTHAN 

(i9p-3o) 


(A Paper prepared as a basis for discussion) 


EDUCATION COMMISSION 

UNIVERSITY GRANTS COMMISSION BUILDING 
GOVERNMENT OF INDIA 

1965 



U) 

PREFACE 


Placed below is an exercise in which I have 

attempted to work the details of educational development 
in Rajasthan (1950-80). It takes into account the 
progress made in the first three Five Year Plans and also 
tries to indicate the type of educational development 
which would have to be attempted during the next three 
Plans . 

I think I should explain my object in undertaking 
this exercise. I believe that a proper plan of 

educational development in India can only be prepared in 
three stages. In the first stage, we arrive at some 

general criteria for educational -development; in the 
second, we apply these criteria to the conditions in each 
and every State and try to find out whether they click 
or need any modification; and, in the light of these 
State-level exercise, we should come back, in the third 
stage, to the general criteria with which the exercise 
started and re-formulate them in such a way that they 
would be applicable to all the different conditions we 
meet with in the country. If this broad promise is 

granted, it follows that the exercise for finalising the 
Report of the Commission would have to be made in the 
three stages indicated above. 

In so far as the first stage is concerned, it is 
true that the Commission has recorded a formal tentative 
decision on every point that arises in such planning. But 
a good deal of ground has already been covered in the 
discussions held in the Commission and the papers 
circulated. I feel that a basis of the general criteria 
has already been tentatively formulated - although not 



1 , 11 ) 


explicity. Whatever general criteria have not been 
formulated so far will automatically axit out of the 
discussions on this and similar other paper to be 
prepared for the different States. 

I, therefore, think that we have reached a stage 
when it is possible for us to enter upon the second stage 
of this exercise. The present paper on Rajasthan State 
is the first in the series. It has taken considerable 
time for preparation. This was in vitable because it was 
the first exercise to be undertaken; but subsequent 
exercises for other States will not take so much time, 
nor will they be so imperfect as this is. 

I think that the Commission could spend some time 
usefully in discussing this exercise and all its 
implications. This discussion would enable us to arrive 
at more specific but tentative decisions on the general 
problems, and also to evolve a clearer concept of the 
format in which such exercises are to be carried out for 
the other States. 


J.P.NAIK 

MEMBER-SECRETARY 


Delhi ; 

March 15, 1965. 



(ill) 

EEJT G at ION AL DE.V ELO PM ENT IN RAJA 3TIIAN 
( 1950 - 80) : . 

C 0 N T E N T 3 


HAP? REPORT 

1. General 

2. Expansion of Primary Education 
( a 1 g; r cu p 6 - 10 ) . 

3 . Exp a n 3 1 on o f middle 3c no ol 
Education ( age-group 11-13) 

I. Elementary school teachers and 
qu.'il 1 t a 1 1 V o im p r ov orn on t o f 
olcm ifitary e ducat ion. 

5 . § o c g h d a r y S du cat! on 

6. Higher Education . ; 

7. Adult Education f 

3. Other Educat ional’ : Programmes' 

9. Educational Administration 

10. Pin an oo : 

II. Strategy of Development & Priorities 

12. General information about 'Rajasthan 

A N N E X U RE 3 
\ 

I. Education of the Scheduled Castes and 
Scheduled Tribes:, in Rajasthan 

II. Extract from the Memorandum submitted 
by tho State Government to the 
Education Commission relating to, the- 
ideation of Girls 

III. En, -linen t in Class I 

IV. tin's t age and Stagnation at the 
Primary Stage. 

V . R a to o i T r an s f or * fr ora T r im ar y to 
M ladle ; Schools. 

VI. Teachers According to Qualifications 
in Rajasthan. 


14 

22 

40 

54 

61 
68 
83 
93 1 
97 


9 8 " 


99 

1C 1' 

10 2 

10 5 
106 



( iv) 


.1. 3'.' 1 or :/ st rue tur ,1' teacEiers 

n < i officers of the Education 
Department. 109 

• ! . E x p .-'in 3 i i. n o f tra in ing inst itut ion 3 

I' or el .;M> ait ar y education. 117 

IX. Programmes for qualitative improvement 
of el am on t ary education (other than 

those concerned with teachers). 120 

X. Rato of transfer from midul, to 

sue on clary schools. 137 

.v E. Main r oc onun on da t ion s of-~the. 

Chatter ji Committee. 138 

XT I. A brief note on the progr alamo of 

Exam in.-, c ion A*, form in Rajasthan l$5 

. Eli. Roorg.an Is at ion of the School Leaving 
.Exam in at ion at the end of the. 

"secondary stage. 15C 

..it, 3ch olio . .'.f Cooper at iv o Book Banks 153 

XV. Transfer fr- m .’..;C 4 ondar ,v to Uollv; giatc 

Education ' 15.5 

XVI. Bn sic In format ion about t h o Colleges 

for General Education in Rajasthan ( 1963-64) 157 

XVII. Districtwiso percentage of Population 

of Scheduled Castesiand Scheduled -Tr ibes 

to total Population in Rajasthan (1961) 161 

■VIII. Tiio State .Board of Teacher Education 162 

XIX. iotel Finance Required for Educational 

Development ( 1965-66 to IS 80-81) 165 

XX. Total Outlay and Expenditure During 

the first Four Five fear Plans l&«i 

ST AT 1ST ICAL TABL ES 

a-1 Total population of the State according 

to age-group 167 

.-.-2 Cla s~ iso enrolment at primary 
school stage in Rajasthan 
( 1950-51 to 1980-01) 

A -3 Class-wise enrolment at middle 
school st ige in Rajasthan 

(19 50-51 to 19130-81) 171 

A-4 Class— wise enrolment at high/highor 

secondary school stage in Rajasthan 

( 1950-51' to. 1980 - 81) " 174 



IV) 


B-l Statistics of primary school 
o du c a t i on in Rajasthan 

( 19 50-51 to 19 80-81) 177 

F3-2 Statistics of middle school 
o ctu c : 1 1 1 on in R a j a sth an 

(19 50-51 to 19 80-81) 178 

B-3 Statistics of el ament ar y tenohor 
t r a i n I n g scho o 1 s in R a j a s t h an 

( 1950-51 to 1980-81) 180 

B-4 Statistics of high/higher secondary 
school education in Rajasthan 

( 19 50 - 51 to 19 80 - 81) 101 

B-5 Statistics of secondary teacher 
training colleges in Rajasthan 

(19 50 - 51 to 1980-81) 182 


B-6 Statistics ofi schools for 
P r o f o s s I on a. 1 e du c a t i on 
(excluding teacher training) 
in Rajasthan 


( 19 50 - 51 to 1965-66) ’ 183 

B-7 Statistics of colleges for general 
education in Rajasthan 

( 1950-51 to 1965-66) .184 

B-8 Statistics of professional 

colleges (except teacher training) 
in Rajasthan 

( 1950-61 to 1965-66) 185 

B-9 St at 1st ics . of spec ini colleges in 
Rn ja s than 

(19 50 - 51 to 1965-66) 186 

B-10 Statistics of Universiti ... in 

Rajasthan (1950-51 to 1965-66) 187 

B-ll Statistics of pre-primary 
education in Rajasthan 

( 19 50-51 j' to 1980-81) 188 

B-12 Bdupat ion of Scheduled Castes 
an d Sc h edul c d Tr ib e s 

(1960-61) 189 

B-13 Statistics of schools for 

handicapped children In Rajasthan 190 

(1950-51 to 1965-66) 

♦ ; \ # 

3-14 ftp aw t la. of literacy in Rajasthan 

(1951-61) 191 

3-15 Total expenditure on educational 
institutions by objects in 
Rajasthan 

(19 50 - 51 to 1965-66) 192. 



EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN RAJASTHAN 


■ ■ - ( 1950-80) 

1# v/i<-h the exception of Ajne. which merged in 1956, ".he 

Sta' e of Rajasthan was practically for med on 26th January 

♦ 

I960* In most of "ha pr nicely bra es which consul -iref 

V 

Rajas "han, ; eaudation was cod par a* : • ively negleCcec , ex cep m a 

... : t, 

fevi urban ! areas . Consequently, Rajas ,han began the race for 
educational development with a very severe handicap, due to 
noro • han a century of neglect. In 1950-51, the number of 
educational institutions in she 3 a :e' was only 6,027 with a 
o ;nl enrolment of 4,47 lakhs, or only 2.8 per cen~: of 'hie 
popula : ion, she lowest among "he Soares of the Indian Union. 

In spite of immense odds, 'she State has tried to develop 
education very rapidly during the firs:; three Five Year Plans, 

By 1965-66, she total number of educational institutions is 
expected to rise so 29531 and. "he total enrolment ~o 25.86 
lakhs . This implies an annual -ncrease of 12.5 per cent m 
enrox-uen'; as against 6,5% for the Inc- ran Union as a whole . Iu 
has also- been- able ;o introduce fairly good .scales of pay and 
service conditions for teachers at all stages. The standards | 

of education, although "hey still-. leave a good deal to be ! 

desired,, are better in several- r.e'spe.cts ’than those in many other 
States. The total educational expenditure p ! or head of popula ion 
which was Rs,l* 9i In 1950-51 is expected *o rise t-o '-.,9,3 in 
1665-66 ■: 

1 ..t ■ j 

* The ocher transfers made under -ho Sta es Reorgan. ,z;v' ion Act 
of 1956 were : (I) to r to Rajas nan the Abu Road Taluka of 
the old Bombay --3'C ate ana he Sune 1-Tap pa of 'he old Madhya Bhar at 
State, and (2), t.Q merge ; 'he Sironj Sub-Div is ion of Rajas "han 
in Madhya Pradesh. ' 

% The corresponding figures for the Indian Union as a whole 
are p.s,3,2. and Rs.11,0 respectively. 



In spite of those achievements, however, the State -has not yet 

^ , i 

been able to overcome lets i rplti al handicaps and is sti ll. 

' s. 

among the less advanced .'States, of the Indian Union. It will, 
'herefore, be no cossary ■ .hot only to ..ontinue but to intensity 
still further the ■ energetic and radical effort 'which the 3t ...f- 
map. been making "for educational development during the first 
three hive Ye ar , Pl'anS . ...... 

2. Primary Ediltca^i o n r The first priority in educational 
doyelopme nt is to fulfil :the constitutional directive, viz., 
the . provision of free ancl, compulsory e ducati on 'for all children 

..till they complete the. age of 14 years. This will have to be 
reached in two stages •- free- and compulsory education (age- 
group 6-10)’ and free and compulsory middle school education 
( 1 1-14) 

3. 'In 1950-51, there were 'only 4,336 primary 'schools . The 
total enrolment at primary school stage was 330 lakhs (2.75 
lakhs boys and 55,000 girls or one girl for every five boys). 

he first two Plans registered an admirable progress. By the 

nd of the iirst i-’lan, the number of primary schools was nearly 
* ■ rose to 5»37 lakhs 

doubled and rose to 8186; and the total enrolment^ 4. 39 lakhs 


^....I^ri_ng^the next 15 years, the 1 emphpsis..should be to provid 
frae and ^uta-v-er.s.al.'., education rather than to emphasize the 
■ compulsory 1 aspect op'Tt;- vi- a ..., ..the, strai ni ng after the 
1 a s f ' *t t\i ant , t h e pr o vi si o of s pc* c i al s clVc cits for al 1 
handi.oapped’. children, , and-flfi. /organisation 6-f an elaborate a 
costly administration 'for the enforcement of compulsory 
attendance . , _ v/hat is i ht e nd e d( here . by the expression uni v or 
oleme.nt.ary^ education is three thi ngs: , universality of pro vis 
,/.iich implies ’>thfc .provision of facilities within easy walkin 
Mi stance from. the home of every ohild; universality of enrol 
a--nt wmch mo ans the ' enrolment of everv normal child in 
exass I between the ages of --7 (unless it has been 
■y untarily enrolled earlier) and universality of retention 
winch means that every child, o' nee enrolled in schools shall 
..ot be allowed to drop out before completing He elementary 
course or the' age of 14 years. . The total enrolment in ole: me 
.■ c.nools would be equal to the population in the a^e-group 6- 
..vynich mil imply the enrolment of not less than 90. per cent 
'! tne normal children in the age-group), the remaining nine 
ulru - taken nr b~ vounger or older children. P 0 ^ the- b on^ic 


i c n 


nt ary 
14 


c ml d rep, t h u r c w c u 1 d be one school 


mutk 

.-i 1 


m each district and one schoo 


each for tire blind 


rh for the handicapp 


oppe a 
it- 


boys and 98,000 girls) which shows an av e rage annual inert as e 
of 10.2 p^r cent (9,._7 .per cent for boys and 1 2.5 P-*' ce ut 
for girls) . But very little beyond in ore expansion w as 
attempted - the Average pupil-teacher ratio rose only from 
26 in -1950-51 to- 27 in 1955-56 and the average annual 
salary of a teacher from Rs 640 to only Rs 689 and, in the 
uvent , tin.' cost per pupil pi.r year fell down from Rs 36.8 
to Rs 33.0: In the second plan, a still mere intensive 

and all-round effort was made to develop primary education 
and t he achievements were extremely remarkable. The number 
’ of schools increased to 14,548 (an increase of about 78 p>. r 
-cent); arid the total enrolment increased to 11.14 lakhs ( • ■: 
..lakhs boys and Rs 2..1.5 lakljs girls or about one girl for 
every four boys) which implies an average > annual increase 
“of 15.7 per cent (l5.4 per cent fc-r boys and 17.1 per cent 
. for girls'). • In 'the meanwhile, the average annual salary of 
the teacher rose. to Rs 924 which was balanced by a rise in 
the pu pi lp teacher ratio to 31 so that .the . cost per pupil per 
: ybar”rem'ai ned almost stationary at Rs 33.3. In the third 
Plan, . .the principal achievement 'has been an increase in the 
average annual salary of : teachers to about; Rs 1300, which is 
about 45 per cent higher than the average for India as a who 
But the caus e of ’ olcme nt ary education has, on the whole, 
received a set-back due mainly to tierce reasons! (a) cv„r-P 
paucity of resources; (b) greater .pressures that arose in 
secondary and higher education; and (c) the inevitable 
disturbance- that arcs, as a result of the transfer of primar 
schools to ranch ay at Sami tis . - ' By 1965-66, the number of sch 

will rise tc .about 18,600. The target for' enrolment was 

■ , - 1 1 

originally set at 21 lakhs; but it has since been revised to 
•18.6 lakhs ( 14.5 lakhs of boys and 4.1 lakhs of girls cr 2 
girls for about 7. boys) which will imply an average annual 
increase of only 10.8 per cent (lO.O per cent .for boys and 
13.7 per cent for girls ) . At • iw end of the third Plan, 

the enrolment at the primary stage would be only 58 per cv.nl 

of the age-group 6- 10 (87.2 per cent for boys ana 21.4 per 

cent for, girls) ^nd i nspi tv. of all its efforts , Rajasthan we 

' ‘ still be 


¥r ' 

The indications are that this is not likely to. be realised 
in practice and the short-fall may be about one lakh or eve 


more . 



- 4 ~ 


Uhion 
Inert' 
to pr 


t ,.t In.: l^.'ost cad n, ion - the Stain, so of the L a hi; a . 
in this respect. The pupil- teacher ratio has 


ased 


ov idc 


to 37, more due to the inability oT the State 
tho noaessal'y teachers them to any deliberate 


..policy to adopt' a lar 0 er class- size, .uid the cost per 
pupil is .expected' to rise to lb, 33.2 •which does not 
compare favourably to the cost of h. 36 . 8 in 1350-51, 
especially if one vjerc to allow for the increase in 


prices. It should bo pointed out, however , th .cl in 
spite of 'this marginal " increase in the cost per pupil 
por year, the total direct expenditure on primary 
schools , increased fi'oin, h. 34.3 lakhs in 1950-51, to 
lb... 130,79 laichs in. 1955356 to .Ps, 293.97 lakhs In 


1960-61 and to Es, 603” lakhs in 1965-66 which implies 
ail aver ape annual increase of 3.1 per cent in the fir 
Plan, 13.4 per cent in the second. Flan .art 15. e per c 
in .the 'third plan. 


4 , : ! The task facing the State in this sector is 
formidable,' By 1931, the population -in the agergSoup 
6—10 Is cxpec oed llto oe aoeuo ; 'Co. la^vas. Ii ohc can ol. *cn. o 

y . / | 

in classes X-V ’ is to be about 110 per cent of this 
(with a view' to allowing for over-age or under-age 
children) , we- shall lhave to , aim at a target of an 
enrolment ,of about '50 lakhs '"in 1980-81 as against about 
18 lakhs only reached in 1965-66.- The present proposal 
is that the total enrolment should rise to about 23 lakhs 
at the end of the fourth Plan. It would, therefore, not 
be possible for the State, even if the same scale of >-ficr' 
is to • be continued in the fifth end sixth Flans, 'to fulfil 
the constitutional directive by 1981, 'As the cost mal 



- 5 - 

difficulty of the programme increases as one draws near 
the .saturation point,. ah assumption of an equal effort 
jut each, succeeding plan is not very realistic and, if no 
special efforts are made in this sector, it appears uli.io»\, 
iiiev italic that Bajasthnn v/ouid not he able to xullil 1'-^. 
constitut ional .directive, even in this United sector , 
till at least 1985-86 or even 1990-91. This would indeed 
be' a tragedy and in our opinion, steps have to be taken 
to fulfil substantially the directive principle of the 
Constitution by 1981 at least. This will imply that 
onrolnent in classes I-V will have to be equal to about 
100 cor cent of the ace-croup 6-10 by 1975-76 at the 


latest. 

5, Iron this point of view , wc make the following 

r cc oilmen dat icrx s : - 

CD By, 1965-66, 37.2 per cent of the boys would 
have been pnrolled. By 1980-81, universal euuc at ion 

would be reached for boys without any social difficult’/ 
if the necessary funds can be provided. The biggest 
difficulty will be to enrol girls, and to increase their 
enrolment from 4.1 lakhs or 26.4 per cent to about 22 lakhs 
or 100 per cent which .implies an average increase of 1.4 
lakhs per year as against the best achievement of about 
40,000 per .ye ar reached so far. The picture about the 
enrol me nt of children belonging to the scheduled castes and 
scheduled tribes .in the State is also far from happy and tin. 
State is lagging behind i.n these respects also." Obviously, 
these problems have large! social and cultural connotations 
which cannot bo met by more provision of funds. The State 
should, therefore, make an intensive effort to ov crcc ..m the 
social and cultural barriers involved, t o educate publi c 
opinion, a nd to sec ure a nd t r ai n the ne c e s s ary workers with 

a view to expanding the enrolment of girls and of t ho_ b a cl. - 
* See Annexure I for details 



-b- 

war d cla r' oes "at: the prima ry sta ge at th cf'nstes t r JQgiLj-i" 
and tp: t ire ex tent th e y s uccee d, n o f rnunci a l di f f i cu ltipj; 
shoul d, be - allowed 'to stand in the ’-/ay b.y providin g ru. co s s ary. 
.s pecial .cent ral ass i stance . In a statu of this type which 
has done its best arid where the handi caps is mainly ns tori c--.u. 
and beyond its control, special central assistance sic ne can 
secure equality of educational opportunity in the Indian Union 
as a wncle • 


( 2) It nay be desirable to r a i s e tin en rolment at the_j : _nd 
of the four th Plan tc about 30 lakh s ■ from' iS or 1.7 lakhs that 
wculd.be re.acncd ,,.t the end of the thirdi Plan. This may ne^ o 
SP--C 1 o l central assis t anc e. In the fifth Tlan, it should be 

r 

raised tc 42 lakhs ' and to 50 lakhs in th.o> sixth Tlan, 

( 3) At . present , , the increase in c nrolmeht in class 1 ( which 
is the only point at whi ch fresh enrolment takes place) is vn.ry 
haphazard ara depends upon f.vc f actor s - both of which have 

I 

behaved jsr.r.atically from year to on- .x trn seal and i i ci -ncy 
with which enrolment drives are organised and the funds made 
available for the appointment of additional, teachers. It is 
nccos s ar y t c plan t ire s o pr o pu r 1 y i n f u t u r e . The on rc 1 me nt 
drives should bo an annual feature and an efficient system should 
be developed j)cr planning, implementing and evaluating them fro;:, 
year to year. .The str ess i n t h e pro gramme should be- on the 
enro l men t of children of the a ge-g rou p 6- 7, (and not any chi i.cl .re n 
of any age) i n class- 1 . He re over, the necessary provision f •: r 
additional teachers required should be made wi theut- f ai 1 be cause , 
in Its absence , , the enrolment drive becomes a- frustrhti ng and 
ev- *i harmful exercise., • 

(3) Increasing the enrolment in class I should net be i\. 'ord. 
as it has been so far, as. the main programme of increasin'; 

enrolment . On the other hand, stre s s should be lai d on th e j 

, T " Ir 

7e broadly agree with- the proposals made by the State Gcvernmc r: 
** for this purpose. Please see* Annexurc II. 

Please' see Annexurc III for details. 

■)f-u w . 

Please see Armexure III (column 4) 



I'c. due ■ i c n of s tagnation a nd wastage ay the pri nci .• 
method s of increasing enrolment . The reductio n 

of wastag e sho ul d he made a definite t arget in the 

Plan, the aim being to reduce wastage and stagnation 
b"./ '•'■bout r )0 .pair c>. nt in tin. fcur'th j lan and tc 
climi nato it altogether or tc reduce it to the 

-h 

Minimum by th*. end cf the sixth Plan, 

( 4 ) r "c reduce costs , a d-lib.rut-.. attempt sheulc 
be i.iadv;. to adopt a larger pupil- 1- e aclior ratio and to 

...opt tin: system of reduced hour s c f instructi on :i.n 
class es I and II . 

(5) : Tdxt-books and reading materials should be 
provided free to all children. '.The r ever necessary, 
girls nay be given clothing' as ’.veil. This is an 
essential reform and should be adopted, in the Fourth 

Plan its. If. If necessary, the cost cf the pregra m 

could be reduced by keeping books on,:. 1 macing 
uateri als meant for children i n class I in the 
school itself and making them ■ vail able tc them 
during school hours. 


Please see Annexure IV for details. 



n 

-o~ 

6. K i cl d It-; School E du o a t i c n ; "'he proble a'i the uia d 

school stage is even more difficult than at tho primary. In 

1950-51, there were only 732 middle schools (which moans about 

ono middle school for 6 primary school') with a total enrolment 

of only 60,495 (51,873 boys and 8,622 girls) at middle school 

stage which was equal to only 5,4 per cent of the age- group 11-13 

(8,9 per cent 1 oyaj and 1.6 per cent girls or about 1 girl for every 
j . ; » 

6 boys). During the first three Five Year Plans, expansion of 
middle school education has been proportionately faster than 
that of primary education.- this is also the trend in India as 
a whole. At the ond of the first Plan, the number of middle 
schools- increased. to 907 which, however, meant only one middle 
school for nine primary schools - the proportion of middle to 
primary schools declining on account of the comparatively more 
rapid expansion of -primary education. The total enrolment at the 
middle school stage (classes VI-VIII) rose to 1.07 lahhs (96,000 
boys said 11,000 girls) .implying an average annual increase of 
12,1 per cent (13,1 per cent boyjs and 5,7 per cent girls). In the 
second Plan, this tempo of expansion increased still further 

• . i 

because 'the pres cures 'Of expansion of primary education in the 
first Plan climbed up to the middle' school stage. At the end 
of the second Plan,; the number of middle schools increased to 

j 

1,416 which, however, meant only one middle school for about 
10 primary schools . The total enrolment at the middle school 
stage increased to 2.07 lakhs (1.79 lakhs boys and 28,000 
girls) which implies an average annual increase of 14.1 per 

I 

cent (13,3 per cent boys and 18.2 per cent girls). In the 
third Plan, as was pointed out earlier, the tempo of 
expansion of primary education was adversely affected, 
but the expansion of middle school education continued 
unchecked, at tho end of the third Plan, it is expected that 



- 9 - 


the enrolment;, at the middle school stage will rise to 4 lakhs 
(5.2 lakhs boys and ’O.8 lakhs girls) ' which implies an average 
annual increase of '14.1 per cent (12.5 per cent boys and 

23.7 per cent girls). One special .satisfying feature of this 
expansion is the tempoj achieved in the expansion of educar- 
tion of girls which expanded at : 5.7 per cent per year m the 
first Plan, 18.2 per cent per year in the second Plan and 

25.7 per C‘-:nt per -,jyGar in the third Plan, 

’?,• Other developments at the middle school stage ^may be 
briefly mentioned. x Tlie pupil- teacher . ratio was 18 in 1950-51. 
It has been continually rising, du.e to- better utilisation 
. .of. facilities available; and stood, at 20 at the end of the 
first Plan and 23 at 'the pnd of the, seqdnd'Plan. It is 
expected to rise to 28 at the end, of the third Plan. ,, The 
average annual salaries'' of teachers hn\o: improved at a 
comparatively faster pac'd than at tjhe primary stage. ^ In 1950- 
51, the average annual salary of a teacho^-in a middle ^school 
was only Rs . 500. Ia increased to Rs . 7.68.. in "1955-56 'and , . 

Rs . 1122 in 1960r.6l : . J^:..iB'''6xpectod ,to_rise- to Us. 1602 by, ■ ■■• 
1965-66. This happy development is counter-balanced, to some - 
extent, by the” comparative- h'Sglect of non-teacher costs which.- 
have declined "from 33.2 .per' 'cent of the total expenditure 
in 1950-51 to 27.2 per cent in 1955-56, 14.1 per cent in 
1960-61. and 14 per cent only in 1965-66. On the whole, the 
cost per pupil has shown an appreciable in^reasp..^.'fr9m 
Rs. 42.4 in 1950-51 : to Rs . 51,5 irr 1955-56, Rs ,56.3 in 
1960-61 and. Rs 66 in 1965-66. The total expenditure on 
middle schools increased from Rs . 48.54 lakhs in 1950-51, 
to Rs. 89.42 lakhs in 1955-56, r.s . 178 lakhs in 1960-61 
and Its. 330.3 lakhs in. 1965-66 which implies an average 
annual increase of 13.0 per cent in the first Plan, 

14.8 per cent in the second Plan and 13,2 per cent in the 



- 10 - 


third.-Plan, One of -the distinctive features of Rajasthan 
is the attempt to maintain a fairly high standard at the 
middle school stage which compensates, to some extent, any 
deterioration that tales place at the primary stage and helps 
■in throwing up good students. This is due to the appointment 
of trained graduates as Headmasters of middle schools , to the 
generally higher qualifications maintained in the staffing 
of the : ' idle, schools, a good pupil- teacher ratio and greater 
attention paid to them in departmental supervision and 

guidance. This significant achievement of Rajasthan is borne 

! 

out by the statistics 'given above* 

r . t 

8# Incidentally, it may be pointed out that the rate of 
transfers from primary to middle schools is very high in 
Rajasthan in spite of the fact that the proportion of middle 
schools to primary schools is rather on the low side.’’ 

9; t What policy should be adopted for the development 
of middle school education over the next throe 
'?ive-Year Plans? The first suggestion would be 
that the number of middle schools should be 
subs t anti ally incr eas cd so that facilities for 


middle 

school education are broue 

:ht pro ares 

.sivelv 

within 

the reach 

of every 

child'. 

An 

ideal 

pro, gramme 

would 1 

?q to have 

a middle 

school 

for 

every 

three 


primary schools . liven if it is not possible to 
attain this goal immediately, an attempt may be made 


^Please see Annexure V for details* 



to liavo about 1 middle sfchool for ever 
schools at the end of the fourth rl-an, 


y so von primary 
one middle 


school for every favo primary schools at trie end oi 
the fifth Plan, and' one middle school for every three 


primary schools at the end of the sixth Plan. 

10. The ; enrolment of children at the middle school 


stage was only 5.4 per. .cent (3.p per cent boys and 
l.o per cent girls) of the ..e-group 11-13 in lhoO-51 


It Increased. to 3.9 per 
cent girls) in 1955-56, 


cent (15.3 par cent bo/s and 2 p< 
to 14.4 per cent (24.1 per cent 


boys and j4;|l. per cent girls) in 19o0-61 and to 24,1 per 
cent ( 37.1 per cent boys and 9.9 per cent girls) in 


1965-66. If the enrolment of boys alone were to be 
considered, tljie situation in Rajasthan is not so bad 
in co.upar is on : with other States. B^ut the overall 
picture becomes .worse because the ' 'enrolment . oi - girls 
in Rajasthan is extremely'' small, particularly in 
rural areas. If it has talcne 15 years to increase the 
enrolment at the middle school stage irom 5.4 per c.ent 
in 1950-51 to only 24.1 per cent in 19o5-bo, it is 
obvious that it will not be possible to reach a 
target of 100 per cent enrolment during the next three 
Plans' and especially to. raise . the enrolment of girls 
from 9.9 per cent in 1965-66 to 100 per cent in 1930-31 
If the present trends alone, are allowed to operate 
and Jno special effort is made, it is likely that the 

. . : i ‘ ; .. 

total enrolment at the middle .schorl stage may rise 


only to about pO per cent of the age-group 11-13, oven 
at the end of the a&jrth Rive fear Plan. It is, 
therefore, necesSj-ary to adopt special measures ii tno 
Constitutional Directive is to be fulfilled-, at least 



- 12 - 


in substance. 


11. Prom this point of view, we make' the following 
recommendations $~ 

v should' bd , pla ced o n the d^ej/elpjjm o nt_ 
2 a.CkiiIdle_sch ool education in the next thre e Five Year 
r -.Ians_. The specific effort should be to raise the 
total on: olmerjji to 7 laxhs (5.2 lakhs of boys and 1.8 lambs 
of girls) at the end of the fourth Plan-, to 12 lamhs (3.5 la 


boys and 3.5 lakhs g^rls) at' the end of the fifth Plan, and 
il lakhs ; 14 lakhs boys and 7 lakhs girls) at the end of the 
sixth Plan. This will jimply that the enrolment at the 
middle school sta^e will rise from, 24,1 per cent in, 1955-60 
so 35.3 pe. cent (50.6 per cent boys and 13. 8. per cent girls; 
m 1970 - 71 , to 51,6 per cpnt (69,6 per cent boys and 31.5 
per cent girls) in 1975-74 and 30.8 per cent (102.4 per cent 
boys. and. 5.6 . 7 per cent ! girls) in 1980 - 81 . This is' probably 


th? best that could be. attempted. VJe strongly feel that, 
if it is socially and culturally- possible for the otates to 
achieve these- targets : , .J'.tjhe Central assistance should be so 
.t I jus ted that -financial difficulties would 1 not stand in 
she t way,. . , .... ... ■ : - = s 

(2) 1 - The - main difficulties. tj;o be' faced bn a , ' as at the 
primary $tag^ , would be to enrbi * girls, partic u larly in 
^ura'l are'as, 'and 'to enrol children ’of ,the 'scheduled. -castes , 
sch eduled tribes and o’thex' backward classes. 'Intensive 
masures to this pnd would have to be adopted on lines 

- imilar to those ' at the '"primary stage 1 . 

(3) It_Jii ay also be necessa ry to introduce, at this 
t age, a sy stem of pa rt-time educatio n. Choreas every 


" '“l 0 are happy. to note that the targets now proposed for the 
fourth Five Year plan are in keeping with our view of the 
problem. 



-13- 


facility should ho given to children to attend schools 
on a whole-time basis wherever possible, and whereas 
no admission,, should be refused to any child who 
desires to study at [this stage "oh a '.whole -time basis, 
we should also see to it that no child is compelled 


to disco ntinue education at this stage for economic 
considerations and that such children are provided 
with facilities for part-time education. Suitable 
programmes to this end! will have "to b e devised and 
adopted in the fourth Plan itself. 


12 . Pr ogrammes ; of qualitative -■ Improvement at the 

Elementary" School Stage s . So far, we have dealt with 
the problems of expansion of e 1 mentary education 
only. If our recommendations are carried out, it 
may be possible for Rajasthan to reach an enorlment of 
about' lip per Lent of -the age-group 6-10 in classes 
I-V- and S>0 per; cent of the age-group 11-13 in clasjes 
Vi-VIII by 1980-81. Full enrolment in the age-group 
6-13 may ;be possible.- only - by 1935-3o.. The net 
conclusion is that,. -in. spite of the- immense efforts 
put in during the first three' Five fear Plans, 

Rajasthan still continues to be very low in the' scale 
of development' of elementary education, that it will 
have to continue its efforts at expansion of 
elementary educ. tion with still .greater vigour during 
the next three Five Year Plans, that these efforts of 
the State will " hcjive' to bcj suitably supported by special 

Central assistance, .and that in spite of these, the 

■ ■ :(■ ■ 

target of' full' universal equipment in the age-group 
6-lc| would be| achieved substantially by 1980-81 
and fully by 1985-86. ' ... 



- 14 - 


13 • j ^umontary School Teachers : Of the different 

programme s of qualitative improvement, no no are sc 
important as tho:: ? relating to teachers - their general 


education, 
benefits a 
rejj po c t s ~ 


professional training, remuneration, old-ag 
nd ether service conditions . • . : In all those 
except teacher training - Rajasthan has an 


G 


e nv i a b 1 o record. 


14. he ne r al Pdu c at i o n ; In 1950-5 1 , Rajasthan began with 
a very severe) handicap in this regard - only 0.3 per cent 
of the primary teachers at that time were graduates, only 
15.7 per cent' were matriculates, and as many as 84.0 per cent 
were non-matriculates. Throughout the last' 15 years, 
Rajasthan has followed a consistent policy of recruiting 
matriculates as primary teachers, the only exceptions 
-permitted ceing in the case of women teachers or teachers 
for tribal areas. It has also been encouraging graduates 
to work' in primary schools. Moreover, there has also been 
a consistent policy of encouraging teachers in service to 
improve their qualifications : by private study - in fact, 

' sornG officers are of opinion that this trend is even 
carried to such an extent as to affect .adversely the work 
of the teachers in the school. As a result, at the end 
of the third Five. Year Plan, the percentage of graduate 
teachers in primary schools would have been increased to 
2, that of matriculate teachers to 83.4 per cent, while 

i 

that of non-matri iulate teachers would have been reduced 
to 14.6 per cent. This is a record of which any State 
can well be proud. 


15. At the middle school stage also, the pigture is 
similar. In 1950-51, only 5.3 per cent of the teachers 
were graduates.; 39.9 per cent were matriculates; and as 
many as 54.8 per cent, were matriculates. Rajasthan has 
b^sn consistently trying to anpoint trai nari .crrarin o + ,~ q o« 



- 15 - 


headmasters of middle schools and it has also been adopting 


the general policy of ■■ encouraging existing teachers to 
improve their qualifications on the same lines as incicat 
above for the primary stage. Consequently, theov^r-all 
picture regarding general education of teachers in middle 


schools 


considerably changed in the last 


5-66, 11.7 per cent of. the teachers were 


graduates; 74. 6 per cent; were matriculates; and only 13.7 

: i 

pci cent were non-matriculates.' 

l6. Talcing the elementary stage as a whole, it may . be said 


that,, in' 19.50-51, 2.5 per . cent of the teachers were 
graduates; 26 per cent were matriculates; and 71.5 per cent 
wore no n-rnatri culates . At - .the end of the third Flan, the 


number' of graduate teachers in elementary schools would 
have increased. frU 374' to 2,898 (or 4.8 per cent); and that 
of matriculate.: teacher s from 3,956 to 48,402 (or 80.8 , 
per pent).,. On the other hand, ■ the number of non-matriculate 
teachers would have decreased from 10,889 to 8,600 (or 14.4 


per cent) . . . 

1 7 • Remuneration and, Cld-age Ticn^fit s: The t e ache r s in 

Rajasthan formerly belonged .to two categories: (a) employees 

of the State Government, and (b) those of private organiza- 
tions. Nov; a third category has been introduced, vizm., 
the employees of the P-anchay~.t Samitis. but there is no 
discrimination between the scales of pay and allowances to 
be paid to the teachers in all the three categories'. The 
teachers wording in Government schools as well as in ranch a, 
Samiti schools are also entitled to the same system of old- 


age benefits. It is only in private schools - and the nun'de 
of such teachers is very small - that the teachers are 
entitled to provident fund only. There is no justification 
for making distinction between different categories of 
teachers on the basis of' the. employers and it is but fair 


- 16 - 


that all tcach-rs, irrespective of the management under whom 
they might happen to serve, should get the same old age 

benefits. It should not, therefore, hi <3 i f f i c u 1 1 for R a j a s tha/v 

St ate t o intro du ce a pension scheme a nalc g o us t o t hat gl v ■, n to 
g overnment serv an ts for teachers jin G overnment s ch ools also . 
even if this were not possible, j the- 1 minimum that should he done 
is to provide the Triple Benefit Scheme for them as in Madras 
State. The?' financial implications of the problem are almost 
negligible.. All that- is needed is sympathetic attention to this 

I 

category of teachers.' 

18 . In so far as the quantum 'of remuneration to teachers .is 
concerned, the position in Rajasthan, as stated already, is 

better than that in several States. In the next three Plans, 
n o we ver, f urthe r improvements i n the- r e mu ne r at i o n of te ach e rs 
v/i ir. have to b e made in the l ight of the gc- ru ral recom nu- n d at i ons_ 
made by t he Commissio n in this' regard . It will be. sometime 
oef ore these are formulated. | In the 'meanwhile, steps will have 
to be take n to adjust the existing scales cf pay (which were 
really meant for l96i prices) to 'the level of current prices, 
mis, v/ould oc an immediate reform. As a basis for consideration 
with reference to the long-range problem, some indications 

regarding the future salary structure nave been givon in Anuc-xure 
VII. . 

19. Pr of css ion a l 'Training i In respect of the professional 
training of clouu ntarjf t.c-achor s , conditions in Rajasthan are 

■ f 

far from satisfactory.' The duration of the training course 
1.; only one year ins to- ad of two, the percentage of trained 
teachers is 'small" the n timber, of training institutions is 
a 5 inadequate as their quality is unsatisfactory- and there 
is no provision for in-s orvice training (This last is a 
deficiency which Rajasthan shares with the rest of India). 

Stops will have to bo taken to remove all those weaknesses 



17 


in -tho existing programs if standards in 'elementary 

education arc to bo raised. 

- • 

20 . Tr.qin ing ; Schools for Flom ont ary^^T^a^Jj^ijs • In 

this regard, • as in most others, -^aj as than began with 

a very severe handicap. In 1950-51, there wore' only 

15 training: institutions with a total enrolment oi 

1,275. , Unfortunately? this problem was almost totally 

neglected in tho first live Year Plan; and, by 1955-56, 

the. number of institutions fell down to 13 and their 

enrolment toj. ll'177 . In the second Plan, the problem 
' ' !■■'■ 'i • , 

received some attention, especially because of a 

special grant-in-aid made available 'by tho Centro 
■for the d:evolopitciat of elementary teacher-training. 

■ In 1960-61,,, the number of training institutions 

'■ increased to 55 ajnd thoir enrolment to 6,578. It is 
- '-again a rriattor ; for rogrot that this momentum was not 

■ kept , up in the third Five Year Plan so that, by . • 

■ 1965-66, , t ho number of training institutions is 
expected to rise to only 69 and their total enrolment 
to ; 7,950. It. may be incidentally pointed out t hat_th. 
increase in the third Five Year Plan is mostly in., the 

■ training institutions for girls. This is due to 
special circumstances. The training -course in. .. - 
Rajasthan is ojf one year only while that in Punjab 
and the Delhi union Territory is of two years. Since 
tho one year course in Rajasthan is recognised by the 
Delhi municipal Corporation for employment purposes, 


girls from Punjab 


and Delhi find it more convenient 
and economical to 'got trained in Rajasthan rather 
in P un j ab or Do lhi . 0 ons e q uon t ly , a n urmb ^ r of 
training institution for women have" grown up in 
Rajasthan in the private sector which provide admissi 
to the girls from Punjab and Delhi and none of these 


ons 



trained wom~n teachers stay on to worn in xa jus than. It is 
also pr obablo that this boon will disapyioar in tho near 
future because tho Delhi Municipal Corporation has now 
decided not to r^c o^nise the "training course in Rajasthan, 

If ..those institutions for women t ouch or s arc loft out, it 
will bo soon that tho -position of teacher training in 
Rajasthan at tho ond of tho third Plan is almost tho same 
as it was at tho ond of tho second Plan, 

21. Percenta g e of T rain od To ne hors ; Tho statistics 
regarding tho percent ago of trained teachers - separately 
for non and_ women -.hive boon given in Table Nos. 3-1 and 
3-2. It will bo .seen therefrom that the percentage of trained 
Prii.pcy ’ 'school .teachers was only' 30.2 in 1950-51- r 

(2S.7 for men and 11, 3. for women). In l*- 55- 56, it rose 
to 40 p^r cent (38.3 per cant for, men and 49,9 per cent 
for"women) . In 1960-61, it rose still further to 60 per 
cent' (51.3 per cent for non and 45.3 per cent for wom .n) . 

In 1965-66, it is expected to r is.u further to 75 per cent 
(77.5 per cent for tin and 60.6 per c-ent for women). In 
middle, schpols, the picture is son, what ls,ss favourable, 
in 1950-51, tin percentage df trained .teachers, wes 34.2 
(35.2 per cent for' non and 28.0 per cent for woaen) . In 
1955-56,' it, -was -4015 per cent ’(40.6 per cent for men and 
40.0 per cent for women). It rose to : 50v3 per cent in 
1960-61 (51. .6. per Cent jf.or. men and 43.5. per cent for women) 
and is expect pd ; to rise still further to 70 per cent 
(70.5 .per cant for, -men and 60.4 per cent for women) . • iinco 
every. elementary school teacher has to bo trained, this is not 
a happy position, especially in view of t he fact that th , 
duration - of the- training courslo is one year only » ,;t 


* T ho State runs one training institution at. Bikaner 
for non-matriculate teachers' and the .-duration of ■ 
training in them is 2 years. , ; ■ 



19 


O o 


2. Expansion of Train ing Inst itutions; Th.. inad aquae 
of the existing training facilities can be easily 


established J The requirem nts of additional teachers 
have been calculated in Annoxuro VIII. It will be 

seen therefrom' that, for pre-service 'training - a-lono r wo 

! 

shall need about 23,000' seats- in- Rajasthan as against 
about 3,000 seats which we have at present. In addition.,. 
We will need seats for in-scrvico education of teachers... 
and the number of these seats may vary from 2,100 at 
the beginning of the fourth Plan to 6,300 at the end oi 
the 'Sixth Plan. In view of the significance and the 
magnitude of the problem* we- recommend that the expansion 
of training institutions should be immediately : undertaken 
i n Rajasthah on' the lines indicated' in Annoxuro VIII . 

23. Qualitative Improvement of 'Training; 

Institutions; It is even more important to improve 


the qjuaiity ! of training institutions. From this point 
of view, the following stops would have to be taken 

( 1 ) The status pf t he' training ' ins t it uti on s ho uld be 
raised to that of under-graduat e- co ll egos — at pres-ont^ 
the tradition is tb regard the training institutions lor 
elementary toachors- as equivalent -to the high schools. 

This convention- arose at a time when.' the average primary 
school toachor h-ad L: -only' passed the middle school and 
had probably- s-omo justification at that time. ■ It has , 
however, bocom~ an anachronism at present because 
the- average elementary school teacher is now a 
secondary school graduate. In Rajasthan, the situation 
is particularly bad because the st.eil oi tne training 
ins t it ut-ions... gets, s.cal^s of- pay which are even low^r 
than thoseji given to the staff in higher secondary schools 



20 


iu hotter elma-nt of the staff, therefore, is lost v„ry 
'roquontly to training institutions on account of 
r emotions to high or secondary schools . Th„ minimum 
:vf. ii.i . a jdiot-j step n eed ed, th erefore is to mauu the 
c o.l es of pa y in traini ng Inst it utijon s £ or elementary 
■-■achers coe, .ruble wit h th ose of higher secondary schools 
B nt' ultimately, the^e would have to be ..»ado 
inilar to those in undergraduate colleges.' Such a basic 
:inir.ium alone would secure teacher educators at the 
•oquirod level of competence and efficiency. 

.2) No pains should be spared to provide training 


.nst itut ions with good buildings, grounds and equipment 
.3 the physical amenities in nest of these institutions 

i ■ 


■.re very inadequate at present, any niggardliness in this 
• egard leads to vo.fy groat wast ;ful expenditure .in the 
. mg run bee ause it affects"' the standards of elementary 
■ chools adversely. . 1 


3 ) Li beral stipe nds w ill have t o be pr ovided for al 1 
>eachers under training. 


.4) . The. existing programme of teacher training loaves 
-o be desired.' Im pr oy o men t In c ur r i'c ula and methods of 
• o aching and evaluation in training 1 institution for 


eacli.r 

■ s hofild , t h .. r Of or e , bo c ;; 

lines 

which nay be recommended 


•' .1 ue at i on C omnis s i on . 


much 


: l * In-s or vie e Sd uc at ion : : An efficient programme of 
lorfes'pondence education fshould—be "develop ed in t, he... 
t'ito"'Tnstit ute of. Education.. . and : "should bo used largely 
~ or ■ clear ing the backlog of un t r a ined... teachef's’ and also 
l£ in-service education. ^ comprehensive -scheme for 



21 — n 


in-service education, of teachers should be drawn up on 
the broad linos recommended. by the Education Commissi on 
and implemented, the 3 on oral principal adopted being 
that each elementary school teacher would receive an 
in-service education ’ equivalent 1 0 two months training 
in every five years of his s or vie . 


25. As a result of all these r oc oranondut ions , the 


expenditure an the teacher ' training programme is 


expected to 
in training 


ris> 


very considerably. The enrolment 


* - 


institutions will increase from 7,950 


in 1965-66 to about 15,600 in 1970-71, and still 


further to 25,000 in 1975-76 and 30,000 in 1980-81, 
The cost per trainee is also expected to rise from 
Rs. 576.1 in 19o5-66 tV^ff ;%0 in 1970-71 -and to about 
Rs. 1,000 in the fifth and the sixth Five Year Plans. 


,26. We wore very ' happy to note that the Government 
of Rajasthan has realised the weaknesses of its 


teacher training programme and has decided to improve 


and expand it substantially in .the fourth Five fear 
Plan , Its proposals in this regard postulate an 
increase of enrolment .in every existing training 
institution (to '150.) -and the establishment of 35 
now training institutions 'to as?, to increase the total 
enrolment in oljonon.tary training institutions to 
15,600 at an estimated total ‘outlay of Rs. : 128' lakhs. 
This is a programme of the highe s t priority and it 
should no t bo w hittled -down und er a ny cl r c urn s t an c e s_ . 

27. The relevant statistics of training schools 
for element ary taach-lfs are giv^n in Table 3-3 at .the 
i end. 



22 




23 . Other Programmes of Qualita tive Iaprovor-A.nts : The 

other programme of qualitative iiliprovornont at the element ary 
stage include the' following : 5 

I 

(a) a revision of curricula and teaching Methods with 
special reference to tljie pi’obleras of basic education.* 

(b) strengthening the teaching of science; 

(c) programmes of student-aid and welfare; 

(d) production of educational! literature; 

(e) adoption of a now strategy of development; 

(f) strengthening thq -State Institute of Education; 

(g) ' improvement of buildings, .play-grounds and school - 

farms ; , 

(h) provision of adequate .equipment; 

(i) classification of ...... 

Th so p bb Lons have already been examined by the 

Ita 3 as than State Primary Education Coranittoo of 1964. Wo 

' — 

oroadlyj agr,..e with its ■recommendations on these natters . 

For convenience of reference, these have been reproduced 

. I . | ! ■ 

in Annoxuro IX. ■■■ 

r , ■ | 

■ i- ; !.| ; 

29, Se condary Ed u cation ; Wo shall now turn to a 
discussion of the problems of secondary education, 
detailed statistics ; regarding this sector will bo found 
in Tabic N0.B-4 at the end., •' 

SO. Expansion: In 1950-51, Rajasthan had only 135 

secondary schools - one secondary .^chool .for about four 
liddlo schools.. The enrolment at the secondary stage 
mat ..this time,’ it consisted only .of classes IX and X) was 
ally '17,661 (15, 6 lX''boysi and 2,020 girls ), .which was 
•• quivalont only to 1 , 8 /i jof : jtho corresponding age-group 
'3.1% for boys and 0.5% for "girls ) .; ;• During the first 



23 


five-year Plan, there was a terrific expansion,' The 
number of secondary . schools increased to 273 - one 
secondary sqhooijL for about throe middle schools. The 

i enrolment at the secondary stage increased at an 

1 * 

I average annuil rate of 17.6$ (13.6$ for boys and 8.2$ 
for girls); and reached 39,703 (36,712 boys and 2,996 
girls) which is equal to 3.8 per cent of the population 
in the corresponding age-group (6.8 per cent boys and 
0.6 per cent girls). The total direct expenditure on 
secondary schools also increased fron Rs.79,46 lakhs 
to Rs. 101.03 lakhs - at an average annual rate of 4.9$, 
This large- expansion was possible at so small a cost 

for two reasons's (a) The- salaries of teachers were not 

-n, ‘ ... I ' : ■■ ': li ' : 

revised to any appreciable extent - the -average annual 

salary of a teacher in a secondary school rising only 
from Rs. 1,287 in 1950-51 to Rs. 1,489 in 1955-56 i and 

;l (b) the pupil teacher ratio increased from 18 in 

. ... ■ I 1 i 

1950-51 to, 23 in 1955-56, 

- ■ \ i 

, , \ . * : k 
i ■ '■ ■ ; . " ’ 

31. During the second five-year Plan., th|c State 
implemented ; tho redon.mendat ions of the Secondary 
Education Commission. The higher secondary pattern 

. ' f ■ 

was adopted in the academic year 1955-56; the PUC was 
introduce i in 1959-60; and of the total number of 537 
secondary schools whi^ch existed .in 1960-61, as many 
as 304 or 56.6$ were "converted to the higher secondary 
pattern-.-"' 'Side by side with these structural changes, 
the expansion continue. I space as in the past. The 

, ■■ f 

enrolment increased at an average annual rate of 
increase of 16.9$ (16.3$ for ' ys and 22.7$ for girls). 
In 1960-61$ the total enrolment at the secondary stage 
which. now includes classes IX-XI and t he P.U.C, was 
86,469 or ^,£|per. cent of the corresponding age-group 
14-17 (78,197: or 11,5 per cent boys and 8,272 or 



j-.,j pur cunt girls) . The salaries of touchers wore rovisod, 
with tho result "that the avs rag/- annual salary of a teacher 
rose to lb. 1,365. The pupil- teach or ratio also fell down 
to- 21. Consequent ly, the cost per pupil in a secondary 
school which stood- -jit !&>.' 133.3 in 1950-51 (and which had 
fallen' down to Rs.v95,€> in h.955-56 duo to reasons mentioned 
earlier), rose to, f;s. 124.2 in 1960-61. The total direct 
expenditure .on • secondary! schools, . therefore, showed an annual 
'increase of 19,6$.- and -rose to Rs.247.05 lakhs . . 

32'V ' In tho third Plan, ’ the salaries’ Of teachers -were 

rovisod onc’o more so that tho average" annual salary 

. r ' ' ' , 

■ * t ■ - . 

.of a teacher, is expected to rise to 2,645 in 1965-66, There 

has- aiso boon a. bettor utilisation of facilities available 

so that the pupil-toacher ratio has .again risen to .25. Consequently, 

theocost per p.upil does not show .any appreciable increase and is 

expected to bo .Ps.130 It .the end Jf thd third Plan.. Tho rate 

of .expansion' .of ..secondary education has , however , been • 

s lowed- down to sqciq extent 'owing- mainly to financial 

difficulties, iho number, of secondary schools rose to 

728 wliich means lone secondary school to. 2 . 4 riiddlo schools , 

■ ■■ * bj 

The average annual increase in the ' onrolment at the • 

secondary stage (classes -IpC-XI and PCJC ) In -tin third .Plan 
has boon only 13.5^ (12 , 94 - for ; boys and 18.9^ for girls)- 
and in 1965-66 it* is estinitiid' that tho total enrolment 
at tho secondary stage- would bo 163,000 (143,450 boys, and 
19,550 girls) which is equal to 10.8/» of the corresponding 
igo group (18'.3/( boys and 2.8% girls). 

3 3 • Trans fer ^atc, from M iddle School to iocondar y 
.ddp eat i on q V)hat is-- likely- to bo the order of expansion 
at the secondary stage in- Rajasthan in the next three 
Plans? To understand this 'problem pro-^rly, wo--. must 
irst examine' the transfer '-ratio of pupils from middle 
to secondary schools . ./.The* relevant statistics in this . 



25 


regard arc given in • Ajinoxur o X. It will o^- soon tlwrw- 
froa that , in 1951-52, the : rate of transf er W as 78.8 per 
cent (82.2 per' cent <*-,r .boys and oo.9 por ,c.jnt for girls). 
At thread- of the first Five Tear Plan, it .rose to 84.8 
por cont (87 ,4. por cent for- -boys and 63.2 por cont for 
girls). At : present, it is anywhere bet wo on 90 and 95 
p, ; r cult which implies that a In os t every boy who 
completes class VIII and two-thirds of .the girls who do 


so, proceed further to secondary education. Ii the 

present trends continue, -the transfjr rate for the next 

throe ^lan.' would bo anywhere between 85 and 90 per 
. I 

c .ait , a- slight fall securing as a result of increase in 
the enrolment ' of, girls . - .The reasons for th is high rate 


of transfer 'arcs (1) the open-door policy in secondary 

■ 1 N 1 . . . 

education adopted by the ^tate Government; (2) the 


absence; of a public qualifying 1 examination at the end 

i . 

of class VII tj' (3) the opening of a large number of 
secondary schools which is bringing secondary education 
increasingly within walking distance from the hou^ of 


an increasing number of children, 


especially in the rural 


areas. 

34. Such a high rat^ of transfer does not create problems 
t~iay because the number of children that reach class VIII 
is very small. 'But the picture will ; b'e" entirely different, 
alien elementary education becomes universal and all children 
of thej age-group 6— 1 4 will reach class VIII. If the ' 

present rate! of transfer is continued at such a time also, 
the obvious implication is that universal secondary education 
will be: provided automati cally as soon as universal 
elementary education is provided.' It is not financially 

f 

f Gaoi-*!*-’ to provide uniii*ircnl ^ ^ o nd ar.v education Jj3f 4°*'' 



nor would the oconcmy be able to absorb the products of this 


education profitably; All that 


we can t h ink of by i98l is 


cl e men b a x^_..e ducat^iorp fo r all, - and secondary, educ ati on to ab ou t 
IQ-BxL. eg nt of t he age -group 1 1 - 1 4 . Such a development is 
possible only if we . can reduce the ti ansf er-ra.te from middle- 
school to secohdqry ejducation very considerably. 

35. One method whi c.hj.. e an be adopted from this point of view 
is to prescrioe a test attainment on the basis of which alone; 
children should be admitted for ■further studies in s^condarv 
schools. At present .thejre |is . no public examination at the end 
of the middle school. r stage qn Rajasthan. This has led to 
several -Vila,- particularly to the low- ring of standards at the 
secondary stage. V/e J; thfrb^qrc , .f eel that there should be an 
examination at the end of class VIII’, a pass in which should 
obligatoi y for pi'.oce^ .:i ng further to academic secondary 
schools. This • propos ql. was discussed with official and non- 
official representatives in Rajasthan. It found general favour 
with the Rdei cation Department, the .official circles and also 
with, a- very large group, of ; non-officials. n hcro were, however, 
a few educationists which . objected to -the addition of a public 
-external examination -jat this stage. On- a balance of the 
consideration, tlowe-vir, wb feel that a suit able,, public exam ina- 
t ion shou l d _ be introduced at the end of cla ss VIIT. It should 
be conducted by the 3oajd of Secondary Education with the 
cooperation -of the Education Department and the educational 
institutions. All students in class VIII, ' who desir^lo proceed 
xurther- to academic -secondary education, -should, be required to 

have a pass at this examination, in our opinion, such an 

-x ami nation -will provide the necessary motivation for teachers 
and. studG-hta • and win *>i ~~ -- - • • 



36 


• 3st imat od ZSnx c l-unt : An attempt . may be nadv, t. 

estimate the likc-ly cm ■•; Ir.icnt s in secondary education 
.dur irig th$ next tfc oe. Plans . As 'was pointed, nut earlier , 
the expansion of seowiYini' y education has been v -by rapid 
in Rajasthan in the ft. st three' Five four p.ians and the 
enrolments in sec ended.’ y schools have been about doublnd 
every five years, which inpir. s an average annual ince ca.sc 
cf about 15 per cent.. .It is felt that large expansions 
will take place (and. are probably needed) during the ih. art i 
and the fifth Five! Year P Jans ’also. By the sixth Plan, 
however, it would be necessary to put curbs cn further 
expansion, and it- nay also bo possible tc. do so because, 
by then, it wou.ld.be possible fx? a large nuribor of 

j • . 

students to enter ,-lifc in. fairly remunerative jobs and. 

also tc develop courses if- part-time or correspondence 

■ : ' i 

•education. As the | plans of the State Government stand 
at present', the enrolment in secondary schools is 
expected to roach 2. 7 ! lakhs by IS 70- 71 (2.3 lakhs of bays 
and 0.4 lakhs of girls). This .may be* an mid cr- estimate 
'"•■•cd io wv_.uic; be. coo oc. provide xor an on_ olmcnt ex 

3 lakhs (2. 5. lakhs of ; boys and 0.5 lakhs cf girls) which 
will imply -an enrolment of 16.9 pox- cart of the age-group 
(27.3 per cent Joeys and 5.3 per cent girls). At the xxl 
h' the fifth Plan, the enrolment will be doubled again 
ail cl rise tc about 6 lakhs (5 ? khs cf boys and 1 lakh of 
girls) which is equal tc 23.5 per cent cf the age-group 
(45.5 per cent beys and 9.9 per cent girls). In the sixth 
Plan, thv ep:|lr;cnt is expected to rise further tc 9 lakhs 


(7 lakhs 


of boys and 2 lakhs of girls) which is equal tc 


.37 per cent uf the age-group (54,7 per cent beys and 17.3 



-23- 


c ont 


t-tal 


L1..0| In 


it ion 3 it i; 


3 1 1 . . i l 0 v. cl 1 1 1 ■ . . t O. j 


.nrolricnt in part-time or correspondence 


o. urn 


nay be about 1 lakh, thus raising the total proportion 


a 1 the ago 


• Up receiving education, either on a port- tl.: 


or i'ull-t ine basis, to about 40 per cent. 

37. let present very few students complete the 
elementary couiiscj- but almost every student who completes 
the middle school proceeds further to secondary education. 

In the picture visualised here, however, more then 30 per 
cent of the students in the age-croup 11-14 would be 
completing the elementary school- and only about half of 
them or 40 per 9 ent of |he age- group would be proceeding 
iPrther to .secondary education (37 per cent on a full-time 
basis and 3 per cent ^n a part-time basis). What happens 
to thm r e-mail) in g 40 per cent? It is assumed that about 
30 per | cent qf tnen .would be entering life as unskilled 

: i 1 

(but far mere potentially competent than at present) 
workers i and the Remaining 10 per cent wo bid' bo entering 
life as i semi- skilled workers, . after undergoing sene 
preparatory vocational training in various types of 
.trade or vocational ; schools for the organisation of which 
adequate steps will have tc be oaken in the next -three 
Plans. i 

33. Tr aining of Teachers For Secondary Schools -; In 1050-51, 
the total number of - teachers in secondary schools was 3,367, 

^f which 36.6 per cent were trained, .Of these, 3,133 (35,5 
per cent being trained) were : -on and only 234 (51.7 pom cat 
being trained) wore women. . In 1955-56, the total number :,f 
teachers increased to 4,461 and tho percentage of trained 
■teachers t: 36.5. the end of the, second Plan (ID GO- 61) 



29- 


thc number of tcacii— s increased stii... lie - 1 her tc 3 , bib 
( tlia p Ox o _n b 0 . 3 e cf c_ ■ . n c cl touoners be in ( ., 'i 3 « 7 ) ..end m 
1965-66 the total number of teachers is expected U ."lee 
tc 12,400, the per c encage ^i' trained t one her 5 being ..'ala 
60 (non 10 , 307 of when 61.4 per cent would be trained 
and \Jv..;cn 1,533 cf -when 52>0 per cent w^uld be tr- .lncd) , 

It is thus evident that Ra. j asthan has still a loin \i. .y 
bo go , in so far as the training of sees ndary teachers 
is cei'iCernod. 

33. Tile requirements ef teachers for the see end ary 

shape in Rajasthan can be roughly estimated. The 

additional enrolment in the next three Five Year Plans 

will bo 737,000. resuming a pupil-teacher retie of 25:1, 

the total number of additional teachers required for the 

ii;-. 1 .; G/n wli.’.cnt would bo 29,500 in a. per ic>d of 15 years or 

about 2,000 teachers per annum. In addition to this, 

about 200 teachers per year would be needed for r opiao exeat 

in the exist lap cadre. The ,„tal number cf additional 

teachers needed for secondary schools per year in the 

*■¥ 

next throe Five Year Plans would be about 22,00 , 


!. O 


: Sined the duration cf the traininp course is one 


* Ine sbaOistics given above relate to teachers in 
sec wiia ary schools. Tr.cy include, not only teachers tcoch-i 
at the secondary stope, but also teachers teaching in the™'"' 
middle departments of secondary schools (which are" fairly 
common) and, in a few cases also teaching in the primary 
departments as well. 


** The estimates vf additional t cache 
secondary stage will have tc be made a 
The Commission is new engaged in th- d 
technique for the purpose^ and as Swii 
further details will be worked out in. 


rs needed at 
ccerdinp to s 


.ovale pan .t ^f 


tb.e 

Ub j oC‘ 


as it is xins.iisc-U 

this regard. 


5 


C r 



30- 


yoar only, we..w ill nec. cl, for training soccr.dc.ry t cache.. 
25, 0C."' places in i training institutions, if duo alinranc 
is to be made for rnninuu of wast ■ . „ that •. c c ur r. at oh. 
level. In addition 1 , prev is ion will have t,. bo nude IT: 
in- service training of secondary teacher s rad for tlois 


our or so we may. nooc. 


.inly 1; 


number of a lore: 


fr on 500 in the fourth Plan to about 1,600 in the sixth 
, ■< 

Plan. As against those massive needs, the exist ing 
prevision of. training facilities fx:‘ secondary teachers 
is very United. In 1350-51, Rajasthan had only two 
Training Colleges for Soccnd "y Teachers with a total 
enrolment of 155 (135 ;.m and 20 wee. on), Dur in ; the 


x j„' st> v -uvei loCix r xxn , ex, ^ i.i 




v;as 'Aria 


u;.L 


^ai. dale: o .Lli^o.' od n '-'T. GA' O ll- (hOO Lionel X.i i (A hi G \ ; ^ , doj 1 ) • ,_i.I : 

I ? 

the seeth'd’ Plan, still another Cv.i.'.oga was added and 
the enr eluent increased tc 503 (441 .non end 62 women). 
In th- third Pl<pn, s.. :.io effective stops wore taken and 
four additional ■ co looses were started and. the enrolment 
increased tc 960 (340 non and 120 women) , It is, 
therefore, obvious 'that the training facilities for 
secondary teachers would have to bo a little nor e than 
doubled for pre- service training alone. In addition, 
steps,. will have to be taken tef clear the backlog of 


untr a ixn d t cache! s 

and to mala 

ad e qua 

tc prevision for 

in- service- t r a in la g 

» : 



41 . W 

c arc -lad 

to find the 

at the 

State a a - '.a 1 nment 

has roe eg 

nised the 

need to ..11. 

i in ate 

this dof ic.icncy 

* T nr estimates ox" 

add rGienal’ 

tc cache 

•r s needed at th~ 


.secondary stage w ill have.. to be made- accordin 0 tv subje 
The Coniliissien' is new engaged "in the development h' a 
■technique lor the purpose*, and as seen as it is final is 
further details trill be worked, out in this regard, 

** D-t a Is . a iy bn soma in Table B-5 



- 31 - 


carl 

y as possible 

♦ 

Th 

P- 

f C ■ 

V C 

rats 

in 

; 1 

in 

: - 

id, ur 1 

1*' -tV ^ 

Year 

Flam made by 

ti 

x : S ' 

Y' 0 

0 c 

G, 

nVaUri 

r .;o: 

at 

:e 


lade 

s ( i X • 

the 

intake capaci - 

ty 


:x 

is* 

hid 

ip i 

- he x 

-i- 0 1 

ut 

X 0 - 1 

a s t 

.. 130 e < 

an d 

(ii) jest a la 

1 a 

uh 3 "; 

- u: 

1 1 

uc\ 

/ tr.: 

: in 

i :p 

a 

ii 

st it 

ut .Lens . 

ti'lCS 

e Reforms' are 

— 

r r i 

- -. p 

ei 

Cl 

ut . 

9 - 


y : 

u:r 

v e 

r.bc 

ut 2 , 000 

scat 

s in all the ■ 

O l 

a in n 

1 * 

i 

US' 

V* --- h 0*1 

0 10 : 

ns 

put 

tea 

othv-r fc: 

SvCC 

ndar y teacher 

S 

on cl * 

th 

is 

\J 

ill : 

me 

t • 

th 

- 

imme 

diato 

requ 

ir ement s . Ou: 

*p 

only 

X' 

0 * 

0,-1 

■;.end. 

ut i 

on 

S 

in 

*0 h i 

s r v-aar d 

thcr 

of or c,, are i tw 

^ 9 

(^) 

an 

in* 

tens 

iv e 

p: 


' 1 *> \ 

nr ^ 

UiU. 10 

for 

in-s 

crvice e due at 

r 

;ia 

n Y 

s 

re 

md ary 

tc 

ac. 

he: 

r-s 

sin 

uld be d 

up a 

.nd implemented 

r i^h 

-O'” 

u 

fr 

v-w .1 

the 

10 

ur 

th 

Plan 

-i- 0 s 0 lx ..I 

the 

lane s we. ■ be r 

re 

OiU.iO 

nd 

ocl 

b 

y th 

e E 

Idu 


c ion C e* i ex i s s j-o. 

•and 

(b) full encc 

or 

a 0 cn 

,en 

t 

sh 

0 uld 

■be 

0 

iv 

uix 

to 

-LI,.. 

Ule 

expo 

,r iment initia 

.tc 

el by 

' t 

he 

J 

0 dhp 

ur 

Un 

iv 

-i 

sity 

■ for tr: 

secondary teacher 

s 

thr o 

i 

ut 

hr 

VO 

cat i 

on- 

0 0 

ur 

sc 

s an 

,-1 

- ^ *. 

c spend, mice , 

v/o 

■ 

^ r-'i <*■ 

a Oo 

1 

th 

.at 

th i 

s 

icv 

e 

ca 

n be 

air nun l 

ut il 

.ised for clea 

.1' :l 

np t 

1 1 - 

i 

b 

me 

lelo u 

ox 

unt 

v ^ 

iliOd 

. teacher 1 

well 

. as for carta 

.in 

0 ^ ^ 

ns 

. c 

f 

in - s 

, . r v 

r :Lc 

0 

eh 

.ucat 

ion • 


42 « j T he Qualitative Improvement of Secondary Education; 
Realising that there was c. need to review the ont ir e 
position of secondary education in the :Stato, particularly 
from the point ' of v icw of qualitative improvement, the 
State Gev or nrxnt appciirtocl a Committee, under the 

Chairmanship of P:::n.,f . G.C. Chatter ji, to review the 

** 

entire position. The Report f this Committee has since 

boon published.' Some of its r Gc^mmondat ions have boon 

implemented already and others are under consideration. 

broadly a;,,roo "ith those r cc^ mmendot ion s and suiyest that 

* Seme provision for in-sorvi.ee tr a. in ins cf teachers, t-tl 
lemcntar y' and secondary, has already been made in the it :. 
Five Year Plan cf tin State, 

**Tho main rcccmmcn dat ions n the Commattc. have been, 
summarised in djinonurc XI, 



-32- 

^ V -L ; V- 1 ’ U US 0-1 i fft Si'lOUiCi l'\. '.! b . .'.yd... J y, imply;. 1 'b 

the;;’.. 

43. The (Tenuis s ie:: is f inn. li zing fairly detailed, 
peepcse.is i^r the refern of sec ...nuaiy school cur, icalu n, 

era’ iehiry the 

v '~ v _.j .. "Lx IL . jL ; ' of 


i oe ii.ipm.v -nent of instruction, f 
xJxVyr bbe j.' or the or e- s O' v m 


i 1 ■ 


j iCi H y L GC.C :'l 


ICO. 1 5'iG 


—to ^ 1 -G ‘ lj ^ ^ A u OClc u ! 


science, Ci.r'i i'ci’ cjUfCi ( vr hr > • lf > ^ y, c . - - . 

? " ^ A - l^O.SeU X ; ... me CSLllllt.lt O.VC 

n.;px ~v.j!o-ii^ ci s sc .. ; iciary education, As seen as these 
nave boon finalised, steps c.ulcl be t a. icon by the State t... 
iuplei.le! L t choi.l U itil 111 i'L s 'SCheOls . 

-- x am ^- 1 : ■-!■ fa i o n Ref o rm i One of the major problems to be 
tackled at • the secondary stage relates to examination refer 
and. the rc ductiorr of the large'- percentages of failures 
that now occurs at the Secondary School Leaving stage. 

■ ne .oarc of Secondary .education,. Rajasthan, has given 
a very good -lead in this! regard. It has prepared a v-_ry 
comprehensive programme of examination reform - the best 
and the most oomprehens.1 \ r e programme .to be undertaken by 
any Secondary lx ami nati-o'n board in India - and is now 
implementing it through the schools. 7e_ support this 
- ..^.-Gt ire.l y a t' id -re commend t h at the necessary 

and _st aff should be provided to ale 
t_o snable_ _ ift, not- onl y to i mpleme nt this 
.. iSE£bXA.^_..tbe^ ex am i nati on at the end of the 

-k e .. ( i°. .l-hl’Z ^h o o 1 S t ag e , b ut alsso to__i mpr o v e. t he e nt i re 

Ibb° c v a j ; x i|t ioji i n secondar y sc ho o 1 b . , . a a h o r l 

note on this; programme is given in Annexure XL I . 

'' * A very important, proposal made by the "'oard of 
■secondary Education,, Rajasthan, relates to a reorganisa- 
tion of the Secondary School Leaving xamination. Under 


The d e t ai Is' ".of ' t hi s 


proposal" are given in Annexure .Till. 



-33 


this programme, the examination would be divided into 
two parts. Part I will bo called the .Secondary School 
Leav ing examination (which will be id. ant leal w ith th o 
.Higher .Secondary, Fart I) and would bo compulsory for 
all. Part II will be called the Secondary lx am in at ion and 
io is a pass in this Part II that will qualify a student 
for ....admission to institutions of higher education, 
support th 1^ proposal fully, with only one change, viz., 
thp third language ’ (whether this should be Sanskrit or 
any other Indian language is still a point for decision) 

should be .included, not in the compulsory part, but in 

! 

the optional part. This proposal is based on the sound 

educational principle that the examination for those who 

would discontinue their education at the secondary stage 

should be different 'from thos who propose to join institutic 

of higher education, and will have the advantage of incronsin 

the percentage of passes at this examination to about 80 

or more. The facility allowed for doing the examination 

in compartments, is also a useful innovation. wo fe '1 that 

this is g programme which, the Secondary Examination Boards 

in other States may also a sept with advantage. 

45-A; Examinations^ at two levels ('O' & 'A'); do would 

lik^ to put' forward another important suggestion in th is 

! 

regarji, ,. present, all our courses are prescribed at one 
1 ! -'V el only, the ordinary level and the only way in wh ich a 
talented student may distinguish himself is by traying to 
secure a higher percentage of marks. The usual experience 
is that this .device alone does not provide an adequate 
challenge to the gifted student, Je, therefore, recommend 
khnt the courses at the secondary school leaving 
examination should be prescribed at two l evels - the 
ordinary (or 'O' ) and the advanced (or 'A'). It should 


be left entirely to the option of the student ’bather 



-OO-A- 


h should offer one or more subjects a t th 'A' l-;v el 

'O' 1 ev el being obligatory for all) and Lt um y also 1 ! ! t 


at the option of the school' to provide or not to provide 
'A' level courses in one or more subjects included in th o 

I • ' 

curriculum. .ic fec;l that such a system will prov id;j a good 
challenge to the gifted students and that it will create 
a healthy r ivulry between the schools to raise th e standard 
of their teaching in one or more sub ’ cts. It will a 1 so 
provide a built- in mechanism for improving stanuar as of 
education from time. to time because what is now prescriced as a 
course at the 'A' lev 1 will, within a few years, be offered 
by a i a r go- majority of schools and student s so that it would 
th.;n bo possible to treat it as the 'O' level course and to 

prov tdi; a still h igh or course at the 'A' l.vel. e r ec omm on • i 
th is sugg osfc ion strongly for the consideration of the 
secondary 'Iduc a t ion Board and the State Oov ernrnont. 

i 

, I 

46.- Scholar ships; A major weakness in our educational 
system at present is that there is no adequate programme 


.^f-iseholar sh-ips ; at' : th-e- s-econ dary- stag-e-, • w ith th e r esult that 
a good deal of talent; is northern- d-i sc ov ©red nor assisted 
to- grow. Rajasthan is no exception to this rule. At 
•pr-ea-ent; it- g iy es-’U' g : rant-;£rv-a-i'd of-' -Rs; 100 per academic 
y'ear to students of high 'Or---h--igb-er ; -- second ary schools 
(classes IX and X)' and . a- -grant.- in -a id of ^s. 150 per year 
• to students of '-’lass XI or the'PiU.C. The exact number of 
students who are given this assistance is not known; but it 
is not very large. The amount of scholarship is also too 





aeagre. What is really needed is a scholarship which will 

enable a student to sta^ in a -hostel, if necessary, a .1 to 

pursue lies studies in secondary schools . secondly, such 

scholarships should be made available to at least the xc five 

P er cent of the students, _We , the r or ore , feel th t the mini.ui;.: 

pro vj s i o n_ f o r scnolars hips to be made at the second ary stpu 

A'Sl'iiic ~'-o tc pro vi v.% _schola rs hips , on t he present^ basis , to 

i £ V ~ " ' 

A’ ‘5L . P “ i 1 cent o | th e j tot a l e nro 1 me nt an d I a r g e r sc h o 1 ar s 1 1 1 p, s o f 

M..A?P per yea r to three per cent of the tot al enro lment at the 

secon d ary _ stage . (these should be given to students who will 

have to stay in hostel in order to avail themselves of 

secondary education). We are happy to note that a lump sum 

provision ol Hs 10 , lakhs has been made in the Fourth Five-Year 

-ilan of the State to provide scholarships at the secondarv 

stage. While this implies the acceptance of the proposal by 

the State Government in principle, the amount provided for 

the purpose may have to be increased, substantially if the 

targets indicated above are tp be. reached. 

/ '7 . * i I ■ 

^ v -^ s 3t the elementary stage, we whould make 
arrangements at the secondary stage as well, to provide free 

text-books to. ; all children who need th«m. For this purnosc, 

! 

a scheme of cooperative book-banks should be planned and 
introduced in all seco ndary 'schools. The broad outline- of 

such a scheme has been indicated in Annexure XIV, 

48. Development of Selected Schools ” In view of the fact 

that the resources are limited, it is not possible to under- 
take a programme for the! full development of all educational 
institutions at all the different levels - primary, middle, 
secondary, and collegial . At the sane time, a fairly large- 
scale oe ginning in qualitative imporovement has to be made, 
le, therefore, felt that the selective ape-roach should, be 
adopted in this sector and the following targets may be 

Year Plans - 


adopted for the fourth Five 



( 1 ) 


( 2 ) 


9 nc college should bo .i nto nsivoly nevolo pe d in c - 
•tfistri ct ; 

One Higher Secondary School and two Middle Schools 
ohould be intensively developed in each Community 
Development Block; ' .and * ~ * ’ 


(3) About 10 per cent of the, primary schools rnav be 
intensively developed. * 


49. 'Vo were happy to find that the State Government is 
strongly in favour of such a selective development of 
oducatii o nal Institutions and that it has already urovi 
funds for the purpose in the fourth Five Year Flan. Frob yh i.v 
on -l i nanci al- g rounds , the targets set before itself by :h... 
otatL. are rather on the low side and they speak only of 
developing one good higher secondary school in each 
District, one good middle school in each Sub-division, .hid 
one good primary school in each Community Development bdlecb. 
In our opi ni.o-n, this scheme needs a much larger coverage ana 
a higher priority. It may be worth-while to provide lar- cr 
allocations for this programme in the fourth Flan. 

■ ?0, Zf-gational Schools; The programme of vocational schools 
at the- second level is very weak in Rajasthan. This is due 
partly to historical reasons (there was no vocational school 
in Rajasthan in 1990-51) nd partly to the view of the 3t at a 
Government that general secondary education alone ne-„d be 
provided till the age of 16 and that there need be no attempt 
to divert students into vocational courses at the oarli.r 
a ‘ :> of 14. The relevant statistics in this regard arc 
given in- Table No. B-6 at the end. It will be seen tier:.-- 
irom that there was no vocational school in the entire State 
in 1 9..-C 51. in 1 955-56, there were only 6 schools vvit h an 


mils may oe done, by selecting throe., or four primary a 
■in the nfghbourhood of each middle and higher si condor; 
:,i cn °ol selocted for intensive development and help in;:: 
them to grow qualitatively. 


Ci':CO. 



enrolment of 7 96. In i960-6i, tilt numbc r oi.' ackoo U: a-...;.: 
increased to 13, ;with an enrolment of 2, 409. Oven at the 
end of the third Flan, the 1 number of these schools is u xv. e c t a 
to increase to 23 only with a toe ... enrolment of 4,893. 

Taking India as ; a whole, the enrolment in vocational school:.; 
at the second ,'Kvef is about one -eighth of that in the 
secondary acgoolsjof general c-du cation. In Fa j noth an , on tin- 
other hand, the percentage of the enrolme nt' i n vocational 
schools to that in schools of general secondary education is 
as low as 3 ! Admission to the e ;d sting institutions of 
vocational education, is- generally made after the age of l6 
and it may, therefore, be said that there is no form of 
vocational education provided at the age of H in Rajasthan., 

51 . liiis is probably an area whore the policies of the State 
Government may need close - re-examination. ;Ve feel that an- 
attempt should be made to divert students into life at the a, r u. 
of 14 and that various types of trade and vocational schools 
should be provided for them. This is a neglected area in almost 
all paiy s of the country and is now actively being examined by 
the Commission in the Task Force 3 on Agricultural and Techni cal 
Education nr. well ias in thu Task Force on Manpower. It ;is 
■not possible- at this stage to anticipate the conclusions of these 
Task Forces and the decisions of the Commission thereon. But 
it may be desirable tq indicate that provision for vocational 
v- due at ion at the second level would have to be made in 
Raj aotiiun Fourth Five Yegr Plan on a substantial scale and that 

preliminary work for this purpose would have to be unrVrtaken 
without delay. 

■ Pattern oi School and College Classes ; One of the most- 
important problems, which will have to be discussed in relation 
to the re construe cioi. of education in Rajasthan, is that of the 


x "k stated that, even at the endof the third Five Ye -ir 

. '-^9 , would be no schools of agricultural education 

m Rajasthan and that this total -■ ■ f ' 23 schools include 6 
polytechnics, 14 Industrial Trai n:. iig Institutes, and A-tv; 
Crafxs Schools. ■ " 



37- 


pattern of school and college classes. At present, 
uajasthan has adopted the higher secondary pattern 
of eleven years of school education followed by a 
three-year degree course. In this regard, the following 
tentative basis may be adopted for reconstruction.- 

(1) Much of what we call univc. ;ity education is really 
school education... It is, therefore, necessary, as early 
as possible, to raise the standard of the 3 . a. degree 
and to free the universities from the work of the school 
stage in which they are engaged at present. 

(2) From this point, of view, the ultimate target should 

De to pr ovide a school education of twelve years, followed 
by a three or four-year degree course. 

(3) i’he first, ten years of school education should form 

a continuous rand integrated stage which should be broken 

1 

up into suitable sub-stages - such as 4 3 ulu s 3 or 

5 plu s 3 ulus 2 . 

(4) The eleventh and the twelfth years should form a 
distinct stage which would serve two purposes; (a) an 
intensive preparation for higher education for those who 
propose to enter the universities; and (b) a vocational 
preparation for those who want 'to enter life. This 
stage wi 11 ultimately have to be located in the school; 
but in the transitional stage, it may be located wholly 

in ■ the school, ■ partly in the school and partly in the 

. ' ! I 

college or wholly :in a new' type of independent institution 
called the Junior College. 

(5) The degree course, both pass and honours, of three 
or four-years duration would necessarily be located 

in the universities and colleges. 

53, This -should be the target, in the direction of 
which' every State in the country should ultimately move. 



-33 


although we may permit each State to reach this goal 
in its own way and at its own pace. In so far as 

as than is concerned, it would be next to impossible 
to add one year immediately to a.11 the higher secondary 
schools and to locate the first twelve years of education 
in the school only. If this programme, which was 
recommended by the Chatter jee Committee, is taken up in 
the fourth Five Year PlanJ all other programmes which have 
been included therein and which have a much higher priority, 
viz., expansion and improvement of teacher training, 
provision of scholarships at the secondary stage, education 
of girls j 1 and development 1 of selective schools, would 
either have to be drastically curtailed or omitted. , This 
would '-not be in the, larger interests of education. It js , 
th erefore, felt that this reform should be implemented 
i n a gradual programme (spread over the next two Plans 
l or even the next three Plans). The following phased . 
programme'' -is 'suggested for the purpose ;- 
•(•1) A full-scale School Leaving Examination should be 
introduced at the end of Class X. This should be a 
qualifying examination for several purposes such as 
admission to training institutions for teachers, poly- 
technics , industrial training institutes, etc. It would 
also qualify for entry to the next higher stage of classes 
XI and XII. 

(2) The duratio| of the P.U.C. course - which is now 
only' one yjsar 'and which is not a very satisfactory 
programme.,— should be increased to two years, the 
admission to this course being thrown open to those 
who pass tho full examination at the end of Class X. 

This lengthening of the course would be a boon to most 
of the mofussil 1 colleges where the existing enrolments 
are too small and uneconomical. Care would, of course, 



have to be taken to see that the methods of teaching 
and organization in the integrated two-year P.U.G. 
course are suitably modified’ to suit the age-level 
and competence of the students entering these classes . 

(3) As a transitional measure, the present Higher 
Secondary Examination at the end of class XI should 
continue and those who pass this examination should 

be eligible for admission to the second year of the two- 
year integrated P.U.C. course. 

(4) As funds and teachers becgrae-available , the Higher 
Secondary. ..Schools should be upgraded to include classes 
XII, In inny-’high’er secondary .schools with comparatively 
smaller enrolment, the high, level staff is not utilised 
in .full at - present acid the .upgrading 'of these schools 


to include tho twelfth year ma r not be very costly. 

54. , Given a phased programme of this type, Rajasthan 

would be able to adopt the pattern of 10 ulus 2 u lus 3 
in a period of| ten to twelve years without upsetting 
the. pr iorjltiesT of other developmental programmes and 
without ■ creating any disturbance. This proposal, 
therefore, deserves serious consideration of the State 


Government. 

55. , In our discussions in Rajasthan, we found that 

public opinion was rather divided. On the point that 
the total duration of education for the first degree 
should bo increased to fifteen years, there was . an 
over-whelming concensus of opinion. But when it 
came to the details of the programme, a large variety 
of opinions was put forwarjd. These may be summarised 
briefly as follows s- 

(1) The present school stage may be left unchanged 
as 10 plus 1. The three-year degree course, however, 



-40- 


may be lengthened .0 four years.. for all students 
or for honours students only* a 

('2) The present course should be left unchanged till 
the end of the l.A. degree stage and the duration of 
the I. A. course should be increased to three years by 
the , s tablishme nt of grading p schools of high nuality. 

(3) The system of Junior Colleges may be adopted, the 
education in school being confined to class X only and 
classes Xi find XII. bei ng. provided in independent 

i ns titilt id ns . 

(4) Classes, XI and HI should be provided in the school 
only. The Kerala 'pattern may be adopted, vis., a school 
stage of ten years’ followed by a two-year F.U.C. and a 
three-year" degree course. 

56. Hach of these proposals has .its own advantages 
and disadvantages. . Hut after considering, all aspects 
of the problem, we' feel- that the programme suggest' d 
above would probably- be- the best course to adopt. This 
is _a matter 4 how, ever , . on. .which a go’od deal of further 
discussion would be necessary -with -t he - State "Govern- 
ment before a final decision is taken. 

57. Expansion of Higher educ ation: The following table 

shows the expansion of higher education in Had as than in 

| 

■the first three Five Year Flans. 



Enrolment at university stage (Gen eral Professional 
and 3 1 > e o 1 a 1 ) in Ra j a s t ban • ( 1 9 50 -51 to 1 9 6 5 -* 6 6 ) 


FSnroL'nen t for JSnrolraent for fEn r o 1m en t forl^ r * n 
5 Gen . e duca t; ton jjprofl . E du e at I on lj 3pl. Gdu ca t io n (" _ 


■■o a r 

5 

j Bo y s 

t . .. 

3 'G iris 'Total ' Boys 'G 

iris 'Total jj Boi 

r s 1 , . " ° j 3 o v s T 0 Lr ■ 

,-r iris " , ls 

- ' ' ■ 0 !- 1 ■ J 
I 

9 50-51 

7 

■3939 

j 

566 6505 3898 57 

3955 

214 

10 

224 10051 633 

10 684 

951-52 

7506 

862 8368 4566 51 

4617 

229 

10 

239 12301 9 23 

13 204 

9 52-53 

9271 1094 10365 5171 57 

5223 

191 

15 

206 14631 1166 

15727 

9 53-54 

10 1 72 13 43 11515 6$ 39 103 

6 442 

426 

12 

430 1693 7 1458 

18395 

9 54-55 

1039 2 

1567 119 59 6676 123 

6 799 

441 

15 

4 56 17509 1705 

19 214 

955-56 

.11916 

1851 13 767 7643 124 

7767 

552 

19 

570 20111 1995 

> 2°, 10 4 

v erage 








Unual 

13. 6 26. 8 16. 1 14.3 21. 

7 14. 4 

21.3 

12. 

5 20.5 15.0 25.5 

15. 6 

no rease 






* 

956-57 

12172 

2178 14350 8188 137 

8325 

6 70 

17 

636 21030 2331 

25361 

957-58 

12615 

2646 15261 9523 197 

9 720 

90 5 

11 

916 23043 2354 

2589 7 

958-59 

14346 

300 8 17354 10601 241 

10 842 

10 25 

21 

10 46 259 72 3 270 

p O, O .-] o 

959-60 

11807 

2684 14491 10263 257 

10 520 

360 

13 

3 73 22430 29 54 

25384 

960-61 

9892 

2448 12340 9551 288 

9839 

362 

19 

381 19805 2755 

22560 

v erage 








nnual 


4.3 18.. 1 

4.3 




ay 

n crease 







961-62 

10353 

2824 13177 90 27 359 

9386 

546 

16 

562 19926 3199 

23125 

962-63 

11164 

3288 14452)11129 425 

11554 

591 

29 

620 22 884 3 742 

26626 

■ j o 3 - 6 4 

12664 

5688 163521L1629 475 

12104 

610 

50 

660 24903 4213 

29 116 

9 64-65 

14464 

4180 18644 12130 520 

12650 

640 

70 

710 27234 4770 

3 2004 

! J 6 5 - 6 6 

16100 

4 6 3 5 20 7 3 5 1 2 540 5 70 

t 

1 - 

13110 

630 

120 

750 2 9 2 70 53 2 5 

3 4 59 5 

v erage 








mual 

10.3 

13. 7 ,11.0 6. 8' 20. 2 

7.3 

11. 7 


14. 5 .3. 1 14. 0 

8. 9 


nor ease 


-:f- It will be seen : hat the enrolment in general 
education as well as the total enrolment has decreased 
in the Second Plan. This is due merely to the trans- 
fer of the enrolment in the- first year class of the 
old four-year degr ---- course to che school stage as 
class XI or PUC, If this enrolment ( wh ich stood at 
16,900 in 19 60 - 61) :1s added, the total enrolment in 
general education would increase to 29,240 (which 
implies, an average annual increase of 16.2 per cent) 
and the over-all enrolment to 39,460 (which implies 
an overall annual increase of 12.5 per cent. 



-42- 


,58. It will be seen that the rate of expansion of 
h igher ; educ at ion was the fastest in the first Plan (15, 6 
per cent per year) because the base was very narrow at 
that time. 'In the second Plan,':. the overall rate of 
expansion declined It o 12.5 per cent per"' year. But, owing 
to ’the' transfer of the first year of the old four-year 
degree course to, the school stage, the enrolment in higher 
education actually, ^showed 1 a small decrease. In the third 

i 

Plan, the' rate of expansion has gone down still further 

to 8. 9 per cent. per year. In' the next three Plans, however, 

i 

this rate of expansion-- Is- bound to increase! rather than 
decrease as in the past. This will be due' to a variety of 
reasons: - . ■" ! 

(1) The large , expan s ion of primary, and especially 
middle school educatic: , which has been planned will lead 
.to, a considerable expansion in the secondary stage and this- 
■’is.'bound to be. reflected in’" ah increased .rate of expansion 

in higher education , also. 

(2) We. have recommended that"one year should be 


added to the total -period requ ir ~‘d : for taking the first 
degree. This- will imply the addition of one year - either as 


the 12th year in the h ig! 


i er secondary school or as a second 


ir in the i.UtC. course - and this will lead to a 


• considerable - increase - in -the- total enrolment. 

(3); Higher education in .Rajasthan, is comparatively 

I 

..[less developed thjp inwothe'r .States. For . instance, the 
...total enrolment in, higher education in Rajasthan at the 
er. d of th e, third gpian would.be about 35,000 or 2.2 per cent 
of the total' anticipated enrolment of 16 lakhs in the 
c oun t r y , £ Sra; , whbl e. Tin is- is ovpn less than half of what 
it should be ( the.jjopulat ion of Rajasthan Is about 4,5 
per cent of the' total population in the Indian Union). 



-43- 


' . to 

It is, therefor o, es sent ial/st inula te the expansion 
of higher education in Rajasthan to some extent. 

(4) In India as a whole, higher education will expand 
at about 10 or 11 per cent per year during: the next thfiee 
Haris. in. Rajasthan, the rate of expansion would, 

I 

therefore, have to be higher or about 15 per cent per 
year over the next 15 years, if the inher-ited lag is 
to be made up. 

59. On this assumption, the enrolment in higher 
education in Rajasthan will increase from about 35,000 
in 196 5-66 to 70,0 00 in 1970 - 71, to 140,000 in 19 75-76 
and 280 >000 in 1980-81. Of this, an enrolment of about 
20,000 in 1970-71, 40,000 ii . 1975-76 and 100,000 in 

19 30 - 31 would be in the first year and will be transferred 
In the iinal calculations, to the school stage. The 
net en rcim exits in higher education proper would, 
therefore, 'he 50 ,.000 In 1970 - 71 (or 1.6 p.c. of the 
corresponding age-groups), 100,000 in 1975-76 (or 2.5 p.c. 
of the age-groUp) and 180,000 in 1980-81 (or 4.2 p.c, 
of the. age-group) . Even with this expansion, it may 
be noted that the enrolments in higher education 
in Rajasthan will be lower than those in the Indian 
union as a whole which will be more than 6 p.c. of the 
corresponding age-group. 

60. Molments in General and Pcnf^ sipnal Education ;- The 
estimated total enrolments given above will have to be 
sub-divided into. different categories. The first 

is .die break-up of- t.his enrolment into general and 
professional education. In 1955-66, for Instance, the 
total enrolment in general education will pe 20,735, 

If the enrolment in Commerce classes (which are profession- 
al only in name) is' added, the total enrolment in 
Colleges of Arts, Science and Commerce would be 24,195, 



as against a total enrolment of 9,650 in all courses 
of professional education. In other words, the ratio 
of enrolment in general education to that in profess ic: 
education will be 5 : 2. In days to come, the ratio c 

expansion of professional education would have to be 
considerably accelerated. Je, therefore, feel that tee- 
total enrolment a' the university stage in the next ten 
Five Year Plans may be somewhat on the following linos; 


'i o a r 


> 


Enrolment Enrolment 


in the in higher 

first education 

year of (general) 

the 3- year 

degree 

course 

to be 

tran sf err ed 
to the school 
stage 


Ihr oil a on t 
in h igh er 
educ a t ion 
( profession- 
al) 


Proport icn 
the enroLm 
in general 
education t 
that in 
profess ion-' 
educat ion 


19 70 - 71 

20,000 

30,000 

20,000 

3 : 

2 

19 75-76 

40,000 

60,000 

40,000 

3 : 

2 

19 80-81 

1,00,000 

1, 20,000 

60,000 

2 : 

1 


6 1 • E nrolment, s in Undergra du ate and Postgraduate 
Educat ion; It may also be desirable to indicate the 
break-up of the total enrolment in higher education 
under two sub-categories: (a) undergraduate education, 

and (b) post-graduate education and research. At I 
present, the proportion of post-graduate and research 
students is very small. In 1962-63, for instance, 
the total number of students in post-graduate courses 
and research was 2100 or about 8 per cent which is 
little better than the all- India average of 5.6 per c en 
This ought to be at 1 oast one-sixth of the total enrolir. 


at the under-graduate stage and it is on the basis of 
this target that the expansion of post-graduate courses 



three 


2 ) ■■ ' 


ukJ r e e e ar ch nia.y be r;. I an nc d i 


this 

■ a o 0 - 1 ■■ 

<C. v ,> ) c 

...pt;ion, the bre 

' cut ’ - 

c 1 : 

v/c :id Oc 

on the- fc !. 1 

owi r 


11 ne 

i 

s : -j 








Y e ar 

Undergraduate 

On 

CO. i 

.:nc nt in 

Perce nt 

an e 

0 j. 



o nro lme nt 

po 

n t, s 

■v o 

v nro 1 mo 

Til, 2 

n jrO:. 




CO 



... i ' a d u a i 

fj L 

, , , 1 - 




-’C 

;‘J 0 - ;; 

■ ’ '.h 

and res 

e ar c 

:h 7 







undergr 

adu a 

Oce 







e nr o lme 

nt > 


. , . 










1 9 C 5 

-(56 

3 2 , 300 


T, 

7 00 

,3 



1970 

-71 

4 4, 600 


5 , 

400 

1 2 



197 5 

-76 

66 , 200 


13, 

300 

;6 



o 

CO 

~r 1 1 

,50,000 • 


30. 

000 

20 



6 ?. ' 

The 

detailed stnti 

c t i 

C' 

rxiat ii 7: 

to higher t: 

cu c ■ 

ti o n 

in- the fi 

ret three Plans 

ar 

C p 

oven in T 

able hos 23—' 

7 . 0 

; - C) f 

B-9 ' 

and B 

-10 at the end. 







6 3.- . 

Qualitative Improve 

nc rr 

u 

7 ■ " i .- y j 3 O' 

.clu cation; 

, L\ 

e 


.matv 


proposals made .above deal mat my with- - expansion of 
higher education and incidentufUy, cmphnsi a. two major 
programmes which have -t co nnc s p"f 0 n for rraf Imtivi 
ment ..as well, viz,;, ' . ■urraup f -. o’ litis s for root- 

graduate teaching and rc:gf 1, and c.) icecasing the 
enrolment in professional ?dun i : 0 ;i : re wcidly than that, 
in courses of general edu. aiic n.' ■ In addition to this, a 
large . number of measures ■ would have xo be adopted, at the 
university stage- with a view to improve ou'iity. home cf 
the s <_ have been indi c evb o d fc c. ]. 0 •: 

(l) hestri u.tjpq_ns__o_n_ Adr f ci ]■ n e, e. r v -;■> t 

( J e o '. - 3 1 01 duu Oil 0 J. 0 : ./'■ v; :C : r ' vC; ■ " - • > ; . . ( I ........ 

‘he State (government has 'imposed' core in restrictions- on 
admissions. Only stud ears securing ; Least. /. •_.> cr oem ,-.f 
niarks arc admitted to trie So, once fa cuing and students 
securing at least 40 pem cent marks -ere admit tea to tr.e Arts 
am. Commerce Faou.Ui cs . "'hi,; .Is a v, r y healthy reotric'ion 



— 1 + u 


and should continue. If possible, the minimum percents of 
qualifying marks may be increased to 50 and 45 per cent respect- 

ively . ... ■ 

(2). Control of Sub-standard Institutions ; The prof iteration of 

sub-standard institutions which is a very common feature of 

■j 

expar si on in higher education in the country, is not marked 
in Rajasthan due to two main reasons : (a) a policy of 

restriction on admissions adopted by the - State Government, a... 

(b) most of the institutions of higher education in the btate 
are established and' conducted by Government. However, some of 
the mofussil colleges leave a good deal to be desired frou. th>. 
po'int of view of standards and enrolments. .An effort should, 
therefore , be made to provide the basic minimum i acilities 
required in all the existing institutions of higher educ- tion> 
and, while opening new institutions, care should be taken to 
see that' the basic essential minimum of facilities are i nvaii ciOj-j 
provi ded. ' 

( 3 ) Correspondence Education and Evening Classes ° The 
pressures for 1 admission on universities are bound to increase 
v/ith the expansion' of secondary education and the growing a :. si. re- 
fora higher education among tie people. In view of the limita- 
tions on 'funds and te achers , it may not be possible to provide 
for higher education for all who desire it and even qualify ior 
it . It is, therefore, necessary to start programmes of evening 

ft 

classes and correspondence courses. '"here are Iveni ng Colleges 
in Jaipur andfUdaipur at present and we understand that some 


more institutions of the same type are being established in the 
private sector. V/e feel that the conduct of evening classe s 
a nd correspondence courses must be re garded as. a n_ i nt e g raj- 
part of the pro grammes offered by . the Uniyy rsities and selectoy. 
co lieges:.- in ‘the ; S tate' and that _the sc .should be thrown open to 
all and not restricted to employed, persons only as at present. 

, .therefore rid cess ary to prepare, a- detailed plan for the 


It is 



” t t J 


purpose and implement it on a i airly large scale. 

( 4 ) U n a c 0 n 0 mi c Uni 1 3 ; It is impossible to maintain 

standards consistent nth reasonable costs unless 
enrolment of an economic size can be ensured.. .Ax prose at , 
there are several colleges in the State which have v..r,y ^ 
small uneconomic enrolments. In this connection, 
attention is invited to an anslysis of enrolment teacher. ^ 
and expenditure in the 57. colleges existing in 156 3-e 4 
given in Annexure XVI. It can be easily seen therm, troa 
that ’ low enrolments will generally go with low student- 
teacher ratio and high costs and that large enrolments 
will tend to facilitate the adoption of larger student- 
teacher ratios withe-' 1 affecting efficiency and thus 
reduce costs. It may be said that a minimum enrolment 
'of 300 is essential for an economic college unit, and 

on this modest basis, more than hail the existing _ 
institutions are too small. be, therefore , taut 

there should bo no hast'- to discontinue the i.J.s. ■clna.y-o, 
especially in colleges where the total enrolment is seloe 
300. On the other hand, increasing the duration of the 
P.U.C. course to two years may help these institutions 
to be economic and would secure expansion with very liter- 
rise in cost. 

(5) Honours Course ; If standards are to be mprov,d, it 
is necessary to isolate the talented students ;.|nid provi ■"£ 
them" with good teachers and challenging programmes of 
instruction. This could be done by instituting honours 
courses, to which only selected students could be 

admitted. Aa suggested by the State Government, the 

duration of the honours course may be four years to iiegm 
■■with, until the duration of the school course is increased 
to 1 2 years and thereafter, the y may be of three years as 
in the pass course. n ’he first year of. the . four-year ■emu 




-48- 


ccurse should bo common to both Pass and Honours stude nts ;; ano 

IS 

the' 'special honours' programme "should start only irom the s econo. 
ye|r. Some special recognition may also have to he given to 
the honours course in order to make it attractive to the 
students. It is not necessary to begin these honours courses 
either in all places or in all subjects at the same time. A 
beginning may be made; in subjects and places where the necessary 
facilities and teachers exist; anci the programme may oe extenatu 
further on the basis of the availability of teachers and 


facilities. 

64. There are a number. of other programmes in higher education 
which will have to bep developed in all parts of the country 
with a view to qualitative improvement of education. These 
i nclude ; 

(i) medium of instruction; 

(ii) proper organisation of teaching and research, 

(iii) revision of : curricula; 

(iv) provision of facilities for student welfare in general 

and in particular, emphasizing programmes for free supply 
of textbooks, .provision of hostels, day-study centres, 
health services, etc. ; 

(v) modification in the N. 0.0. programme; 

(vi) providing opportunities to university students to 

participate ; effectively and purposefully in programmes 
of national reconstruction; 

(vii) relating the work in the universities closely to the life 
of the community around; 

iaii) developing programmes of adult education to universities, 
etc. 

active 

• . These are now under the^consi deration of the •ducation 
Commission at present . Its reco max- ndations on these and 
allied matters, which would be of an all-India character, would 
also be applicable to Rajasthan. 

65. Scholarships: ^he Government of Rajasthan has a fairly 

■ J. gf. iv 

liberal programme of scholarships at the University stage. 

.his is divided into two categories (a) merit scholarships; 
and (b) me rit- cum- need scholarships. 



49 


(a) ' Meri t scho larshi ps are given to all Rajasthani 
students who secure at least 60 per cent marks or the 
First Division in their public; examinations and the 
income of whose parents does not exceed Iis.4800 p- r 
annum. The rates of the scholarships are as follows ;- 

(1) Rs.350 per academic year for students of FUC, 

1st Year of Three Years Degree Course in Arts 
and Commerce. 

(2) Rs.425 ter academic year for students of D.U.C. 
(Science) . lost High/Higher Secondary School, 
Diploma course in Polytechnics, Veterinary, 
Agriculture and other Technical subjects. 

(3) R$.400 per | academic year for students of 
Undergraduate in Commerce, Arts and LL.B. (Preview 

( 4 ) it. 475 per academic - year for students of undergrade 
in Science. 

(5) [is. 600 per academic year for students of 

; Post-graduate class-, s in Arts, and Commerce and ; 

; LL . ii . ( Pr ev ious ) . 

(6) Ps.725 per academic year for Post-graduate 
•: s t ud e nt s i n Sci once. 

(7) Rs.^OO for students studying in Medical and. 
Engineering Colleges, 

(b) The me ri t - c um- ne c d s ch o l a r s hi ps are aware: . d. to 
Rajasthani' students who show high promise of ben. fit tin 
from higher education but who cannot pursue their studi 
further on account of economic difficulties. The rates 
of these scholarships are given b^low •- 

(a,- ks. 150 per academic year to students of 
Higher Secondary (XI) class, FU C classes 



an 

d. p 

irst 

Ye ar 

of 

i 1 

i’ t- e f e 

ar Degree 

Course 


in 

re 

CO g 111 

S e C, 

coll 


es of 

Rajasthan 

4 

(b) 

! tS » 

200 

per 


omic 

y 

ear to 

s tud e nt s 

of Second 


Ye 

ar 

and T 

bird 

Year 

of Thr 

ee Year D 

egreo 


cours 

e- in 

re co 

£ ni 3 

e C 

co lie 

ges of Ra 

j as than. 

( c ) 

as. 

250 

per 

acad 

e ni c 

y 

c ar 1 0 

stude nt s 

of 


Fo 

st- 

gradu 

.ate 

cl as 

c; - 

s , e xc 

lu d i ng stude nt s of 


La 

w i 

n recogni 

j 

b ei 11 

lo 

liege s 

of Rajas 

than. 

(d) 

Rs. 

250 

per 

acad 

t-mic 

v 

ear to 

students 

belonging 


to 

Ra 

j as t b 

ian a 

nd s 

tu 

dying 

for some 

spe cialis^ 


CO 

urs 

es in 

1 recogni 

S 0 

d institutions 

in Rajasth 


and out si do Ra j as t hail. 



50 s- • 

For the so scholarships,, a certain an hoc provision 
is made i n the ! budget/ and the applications received arc 
decided .on merits. 

66. • In 1961-62,' 6.1 per cent of the students in 

University Teachi ng departments received scholarships 
■.••/hose average value was 3s., 585.5 per student per year.; 
in the oo lieges of general education, 13.4 per cent of 
the students received scholarships whose annual average 


value was Rs. 278.8 per student* in colleges of professional 
education, the proportion of scholarship-holders 
(22.4 per, cent) was the highest and the average annual 
amount of each scholarships was Rs. 419.7? and in the 
colleges of special education, 6.8 per cent of the 

i , 

students, ^received a average annual scnolarship oi 
Rs. 223 per. student. Taking all institutions of higher 
education tog'.-th.r 14.4 P-r cent of the students 
received anjaverage annual scholarship of Rs . 3 43 . 4 . 

The corresponding figures for the whole of India 


(1960-61) are 17.45 per cent and fis. 335.8. It will 
thus be seen that the situation in this regard needs sti 
further improvement. 

67. Incidentally, it may be said that the scheme of 
loan scholarships introduced by the Government of 
India for students of higher education in the third 
five year pdlan does not’ make any headway in Rajasthan, 
mainly because every student entitled for a loan 
scholarship under the Government of India scheme can 
■ get; an outright scholarship from the State Government. 
This shov/s the need for coordinating central schemes 
mor<p carefully with those of the State Governments. 

'Ye feel that an attempt shoul ! d be made to improve 


68 . 



51 


the existing situation in thiu. . ways :■ 

(a) The existing scheme of merit scholarships 


should 

be 

continued with on 

modification, 

vi z. 

amount 

of 

t hw s cho la i s hi p s i 

i:ould be large 

■- non a 

all Hie 

C y 

'.penditurt- r Urn 

. aide ni;s in i;i g 

jxr ^ 


and that the parent should to made to contribute 
towards it in some proportion based on his income . 

for I i ns t ance , parents diose annual income is be low 

1 . . J 

' Rs. 4800 need not make any contributi on; thos c whose income 
is between fe.4800 and te.6600 may be made to contribute 
5 per bent of their income towards scholarships; and 
those whose income is be tween Rs.600 and Rs. 10,000 'they 
may contribute 10 per cent of. their income. m lr- iaea 
of suclpa scheme is to abolish the sharp distinction 
that now exists botw-en tiios- whose income is Dolow 
Rs. 400 p.m. and those whose income exceeds that figure. 

(b) The scheme of me rit - c um- nc e d s cho lars hi ps should 
also bo modified. These scholarships should be available 
to all jStude ntsj who • have secured at least a s-cond class 
and who wish to proceed fur ■: he r. The amount of da- 
scholarships shouTd be the same as in merit scholars hi ps . 
3u t ,o nly about 25 per cent of it should be treated as 

! grant-i n-aid and the rest should be regarded as a loan 
which could be recovered (according to certain common 
procedures prescribed) after the students begin to earn. 
In the alternative, t he entire amount of the scholarships 
may also be treated as a loan scholarship. 

( c) "'he possibility of instituting loan scholarships 
which coul^ be availabi - on demand to all students who 
have at 'least secured a second class for higher education 
and which can be repaid in convenient instalments after 
the stu fent has be -gun to earn should also be co nsi d.. re d . 



G'J » T hi., pr obiera of univ or sity admin is to at ion is v_ry 
impart ant an d is now engaging tin attent rcn of the 
Education Commission. The general r acoeuntnclat ion s of 
th~ C o mtii is i ion in this b half would natumly be aepii: J 
go Ru jestnun as Wall. in aeoitior, who faliawin L , ao in is 
rn'o-d special attention m iafisthan:- 

(1) Tiier o has to b :: sene established procedure, 
preferably infernal and through functions, ±oj coord in at 

frit . .her h ■ of th- differ snt un rv me s it i o s i n the S tate . The 

need for such sc or dinaticn was not it It in Rajasthan, s, 
far br: cause t a was only one university. Rut new -chut 


t hoc o are three unxversiti. s, it is no 


cessary tc .o .nine 


'hi- P- blohi iiui. go s t up a suitable or guniiat icn , j 

(2) inr G— — 0 :-cnal lOa—a was tnac Co lie pas of 

Agr i- ult ui e , jai iiial husoandr y , and Voter inary Education 
would bo affiliated to the univci sity of Udaipur. This 
P.-:.. :is Ph has been impl eme n ted o n 1 y_ in so fa r a s Gu v or in n. 

.P -- 1 rvato go lie yes o f Ayr ic u it ur e 
^ s xae its .cu.v iov; . The oesir ability or 
erherwise of affiliating all Agricultural, .Animal Husbandry 
and Veterinary Collages in the State to a single University 
will, therefore, have to be re-examined, 

(3) The proper administrat ion of colleges affiliated 
to Universities is a very important problem. Rajasthan has 
a very large number of . vernment colleges and these ace 
administered by a Directorate of Collegiate Education. 

fho Radhalcrishnan commission; was net in favour of fe 
administration of Co lieges by State Departments of Education 


■ , . -L 

■■■* vnU 


and recommended tnat an .^.n u cs conducted by Govnr 
sxiould oe tr ansi erred to universities. Scmo action on the 
lines has boon taken in Rajasthan and the results have not 


-p| 



been an 


un-mixed - bl: 


in 1 


Imsrrt 


-ilysor.e as nail but. . without success. Probably, thor c is a 
good deal in tjio v iew. • that universities should net be 
burdened with the administrv.t ion of Gov eminent colleges. 

A good reform w^.uicl probably be to constitute an a ut one me a: 
body to administer all government colleges. This may 
havo a Governing Board which should have a whole-time 
paid Chairman of :tho status of a V ic ^-Chanc allor and tlx 
Deputy. jDir rotor f ..r collegiate Education should be its I 
upx*cf f ic io . Seer otai y . . The Director of Collegiate 
Education [should be an ex-officio member and so would be 
all : the Vice-Chancellors of the Universities in the State. 
In addition, there may be a few nominated educationists 

i 

and university tea -hers. Such an arrangement would have j 
several advantages, it would males the administration of 
colleges far less amenable to political Influences and 
considerations and mere academic -or ionted. It will also* 

get-. over.. the d.iff:. • :lty under which the staff of the 

. .government ,c pile -gas (which belongs to the Rajasthan State 
Service) could not be given the U.G.C. scales of pay. 
st|go has., probably come in India when the admin istr at ion c- 
the most significant educational . in st it uti^ns should be 
vested, not in t^e State Education Departments, but in 
autonomous ; educa-'y icnal bodies, working under the suporvisi 
of the Department » The outline indicated above may be a 
good step in this direction and the proposal should be 
examined' from this point of v low • 

(4) A r.ofe_ once has already been made to tho' idea 
old selecting on. • a liege lie every district and dove. .op it 
intensively. This programme needs t*. be emphasised .r.d 
implemented in earnest from the 'fourth Plan itself. 



-54- 


.70 - 


r j? ti g xy.x 0 blc-rn -ox' x; cnbr eo. X Uii .lv 


x iy :i_:x 3 lx 


X 3 X:- 


.cons icier at, ion,. gSbmbtihe ago, the' Conference .,f state 
.;3d.uc at ion Einaste_s pa's 'sod' 4?. Resolution to the effect 
t ha t . there 'sho'Uic. , a 'Central University in ove_y State, 
This: ;idea finds favour with the naj asthan State Gov. an. sent ; 
.The .Unive’r sity of Raj asthan nas tv c. loped vry well and 
has. a 1 . vsryigrXatx pbtential u young talent, if it could 
be iiadena tbachihy .and unitary urirv n: sity for Jaipur 
City ( its afl iliat :ui 0 funct' is being;, transferred to 
an^th-„.. uniter sity sot up for the purpose), the -Unav-.-vsity 
of Raj asthan; crurid be a very good institution for future 
develop uent |as a Central University. This proposal of 
Central; Uniyor sit ias. w ill have to be discussed in detail 


and all its implications oar 
be. . g iven v or y , ]ji ig h p., ior it y 
c on s u It at ion w jit h the ..State 


efully studied. But it should 
and we feel that, in 
Government, the Government of 


India should ovclve some basis under which the University 
oi Rajasthan could oe developed as a Central University. 

71. Ad.ult_ Ed uca t i on The problem of Adult Education is 
extremely important and almost similar in all parts of the 
country. It has three important aspects : 


(D. Remediai Forms of Adult Education ; The first and 
a transitional aspect of our Adult Education programmes 
isjremedial, i.e. to provide opportunities of fol'mal 
education to those who have missed them in their early 
years. This! aspect would include the following programmes . - 

(a) Liquidation pi Adult Illiteracy. 

(b) Provision of elementary general education 
(with an .emphasis of the three : rfb) to those children in 
the age-group 14-17 who have missed the opportunity of 
receiving compulsory primary education in early childhood 
and who, in the absence of such a programme, wpuld grow 



iae part 


:<i uc at i .;-n 


7 whin v- 


( either in wooL 


Jec on diary education on a full-time basis. 

! 

(a Educ ation O f Leadership, particularly in a ur al 


The social and political 


ership in our so; 


at present (which generally f alls in the age range 30 - Si-) 
had very limited opportunities of formal education in its 
early years because, in, those days, the educational 
facilities in .ajasthan v/ere extremely limited. This is 
particularly so in rural areas. And yet, it is on the 
quality of this leadership that the future of the country 


largely depends. It i 


abs olil el' 


to organise a special .programme of adult Education for' 


1 i s lead e r s hi p in oj 


ler to i 


) prepare it intellectually 


academically for meeting the complicated and complex 
problems of modern life in India. This 'is a' special 

I ' . 

Programme ol Adult education of the highest significance 
and the greatest einphasis would have to be laid on it 
during t he 'next three Plaris . 


■"reparation ~o- The intimate To lectiv 


days to come, Adult Education will inc 


rp.ici n a 


ngly assume 


a position of immen: 


significance. There is .a t 


explos ion ol kn 'lodge in modern societi, 
been estimated that total quantum of 3 ci< 


.entific xnowle 


in the 'world is now doubling in 


and that thi._. rate v. 


■Wo. id o formal system 


a ooriod of 


traceo. a van a ore in 


o I. ‘ e ; ai c ; a. t i o n c a n 


"a research pape , if a good one, : 
on the day of its publication and a 
on the day of his graduation' 1 r n 


often out 





56 


become •; co-extensive with life and every adult in required 
to try to keep abreast with the growth of knowledge , 
Consequently, adult .education ceases to be m .roly a rornrdi.d. 
programme for those who missed opportunities for education 
in their youth (as it has' been so far) and becomes equivalent 
to a continual further-education of persons who are already 
highly educated. Such a programme of adult education would 
have to be built up in the national system of education in 
India, which will ultimately have to provide the universal, 
free and compulsory education to the age of 14 (to be raised 
further to 16 as early as possible) and a very large programme 
of evening classes and part-time or correspondence education 
in the universities, an immense programme of in-service ; 

and on-the-job training for all workers and the infra-structure 
of informal education which will. .facilitate further 
self-learning by all iitizens. Preparation for this ultimate 
objective should be the first important aspect of the 
programmes of adult education to be developed in the next 


fifteen years. 

We shall dm il with each of these aspects seriatim; 

72, Liquidation.-, of Adult Illi ter ac y s In view of t he fact 
that facilities for elementary education were not adequately 


developed 

in 

Ha jasth 

an prio. to 

K 

>45 

3 , - the 

pe 

rc ent 

age 

of 

1 it er a 

cy 

in 

the St at 

e- is low. 

In 

l: 

951, tl 

no 

parcel 

stag 

Mj 

of lit 

eracy 

in Rajas 

than vms SW 

9 c 

is 

again: 

st 

16.6 

for 

Ind ia 

as a w 

hoi 

e . 

In 196 

-1, it rose 

on ] 

i-y 

to 15 

.2 

as ag 

aims 

t 

23.7 f 

or 

Ind 

ia as a 

whole. In f 

act 


the p 

ere 

entag 

e of 


lit .ru 

■ eyj 

for 

the pop 

) ulation as 

a \ 

■ih 

ole in 

In 

.dia ( 

2 o « '( 

■) is 

equil 

to 

the 

percent 

,age of lit:- 

r ac 


among 

st 

males 

in 

Rajas 

(23.7) 

and 

t he over 

•all average 

i: 

5 

brought down t 

iccausc th 

percer 

itag 

e of lit ore 

icy . is very 

lo' 

a 

among 

w on 

ion (3 

i.O % 

in 

1951 ; 

and 

5.E 

0 in 1961) . Sven w 

■it! 

ain this 

low a ve 

u-agt 

j, the 


are large variations from district to. district* . 


^Plicqqp c* <3 Tuhl p 'Wn. R — 1 4 .-it; t h G on d • 



TT 5CHWP jn i ff 

elementary education' has the highest percentage of 
literacy - 25.3 (36.0 for men and 13.6 for women) . Ih ..; 
lowest percentage of literacy is found in the three 
die '■ ricts ’ of D armor (7.5$ for all - 12,5$ for men and 
1.6% for vonen) , Jaloro (7,9% for all - 13.6$ for men 
and 1.3$ for women), and Banswara (3.8$ for all - 
14.0$ for men ; and 3.4$ for v/otnon) . Obviously, the 
liquidation of adult illiteracy has to bo a top 
priority programme in Rajasthan. 


73. We are very happy to find that the State Government 
is contemplating the launching of a big pr ogr ammo for 
tho liquidation of adult illiteracy on a voluntary basis. 
The main idea is ’ to develop a programme on the lin.;S of 
the Grams ikshan. Mohim in. Maharashtra where tin workers 
in Adult Education do not r ocoivo any renun er at ion but 


adequate provision is mad,- for p oviding necessary 
jquipment to adult learners and also to maintain tho 
literacy, one it is attained. The Education Commission 
is considering the best manner .in which such a mov om ent 
could be organised within .our existing educational 
system, at a minimum of cost and with the best of 
results . ltd recommendations ih this s set or would be 
of use to all areas and also to Rajasthan. In the 
meanwhile, wo would like to emphasise that very high 
priority should 'be given to. this programme in the fourth 
Five Year Plan of the Hate. 

74 • IW art-tline Educ at ion for Children In Tils age -Grown 

~ ~' ™ * Equally important is anoth r programme - Part-tip 
Education for those children in the age-group 14-17 who 
did not attend element; ary schools in their early years 
(or attended it for so short a period as to receive no 
benefit worth the name) and who. 


t her of or e , w o aid 


58 


grow up into illiterate adults unless some programme is dovis ..d 
for giving them a basic minimum education on a part-time oa sm 
during these impressionable yc ■ . It is true that steps art 
being taken to develop universal and compulsory primary 
education for all children in Rajasthan by 1981 or by 19. .->5 
at the latest . | Once this programme has been successfully 
completed) there would be no additions to the ranks ol 
adult illiterates. But during the next three Plans, a 
large number of children will continue to grow up and pass 
beyond the age of 14 years without either having joined 
a primary school or having attended it only for so short 
auperiod that they have not been able to attain permanent 
literacy.- It is, therefore, very strongly recommended that 
part-time- educa tion should be provided for all children in 
this age-group. 


75. The programme to be drawn up for this purpose should 
be very elastic, j In the! case' of such' grown up children, 
it is possible to provide the minimum basic education in 
the three Rs and citizenship in a period of about 300 to 
900 hours, depending upon the capacity and the previous 
educational experience of the child. We, therefore, 
suggest that we should launch a movement in the countryside 
to provide part-t,ime education (li to 2 hours per day for 
throe days in a week) for all children in the age-group 
14-17. The programme should be organised by teachers 
working in elementary and secondary schools who should be 
paid a speOial allowance for th..- purpose. It might begin 
with boys in the first instance and may be extended to 
girls as teachers become available and local opinion gets 
prepared, it is obvious that this would not be a very 
costly programme and it would ensure that all further 
additions to the rank of adult illiterates would be 
effectively prevented. 



76. Par t-time Secon dary Ed ucatio n? In a modern 
t "•chno logical society of thu typo which we propose to 
Croat in India, secondary oduc it ion should be the 


minimum odu< 

sat ion to b; 

; pro\ 

'idod 

for every c: 

hi Id. H 

w i 1 

1 n ot be 

possi :.. . tc 

s reac 

:h thi 

r ideal by 

.1 e 1) 1 an a 

bos 

t wo can 

hope for i: 

s t, o i 

w ovici 

,o , by* that 

date, fj 

and 

uni vox's 

al e due at lot 

a for 

all c 

: hilar' on up 

to the u 

oil 

14 years 

and to pro' 

vide i: 

3 ec one 

lary education for 3( 

40# 

of the 

children in 

the : 

ige-gi 

’oup 14.-18, 

There 

VI 01 

ild, ther 

. fore , be a 

very 

large 

• number of 

children 

in 

! 

the ago- 

group 14-18 

v/ho ’ 

would 

have comple 

'ted 

; J lc 

imentary 

education e 

it her 

'wholly or in par 

't and wh 


desire to continue their studies in secondary education 
but who cannot do so on a full-time oasis on acc .uuit 
of social or economic difficulties. It is necessary 
to provide part-time or correspondence secondary 
education for such children on as large a scale as 
possible through the '.media of existing 'secondary 
schools. In fact, every secondary; schoolin the 
country should develop, in. the course of the next 
five to ten years, a day full-time' pr ogr ammo i or such 
children as can receive secondary education on a 
full-time basis and an evening or part-time programme 
for those who '■ cannot avail themselves ,of secondary 
education on a full-time basis. In addition, programmes' 
of secondary education through correspondence couia 
also .be 'developed from a few selected centres m 
each State. We recommend that a beginning in this 
program's :• should "cm made in hajasthan in the lourth 
Five fear Plan and that it should be developed to the 
largest extent possible. in the subsequent two Plans . 

77. Education Of Leadership, P a r 1 1 c u 1 a r ly in d u r a-1 
Areas? It is necessary to provide an intensive 



now social and 


programme of Adult Education tor the 
political leadership I hat is emerging - in the country, 
particularly in rural aroas. This could bo best 


organised through short courses which could be conducted 


for them by the universities and the colleges. We feel 
that every : university should develop an extra-mural 


.services department and every college should develop 
an extension wing for this programme. Its object 
should be to bring the now .emerging- social and 
political leadership in close contact with the ■ 

■in t ol lc c t ual elite in the universities and to enable 
it to understand v no complext problems of national 
reconstruct Ion. The Education Commission is currently 
engaged - m working out the details of this/significant 
programme'. This would bo applicable to all States 
and also to Rajasthan. vVe recommend that' a lump sum 


provision may be made in V fourth Five fear Plan 
ol. the State for the development of this programme a# 
soon as its details have been finalised. 


78. pi epairat ions For th 
While the 


e^ Ultimate Programme 
r am od i a 1 programmes 


of Ads. It 


suggested 


above are being Implemented intensively steps will 
have to bo taken, side by side, to prepare the ground 
for the ultimate programme of Adult Education also. 

1 or this purpose, a number of steps will be necessary. 
In the first place, the objective of teaching at the 


school stage should bo, not so much to impart 
information as to awakening curiosity, to build up 
the. capacity to think and' to judge, and to create 
and promote attitudes and .. habits of self-study and 
sell -instruction. If! this task is properly done, 
there would be a considerable carry-over into adulthood 
and the average individual 


coming out of the educational 



system would jngago h inis o If continuously in a pr ogr ann- ; 

of s : If-improvomont through solf-instructi on. b.xonli / , 
■ ‘ : ! 

programmes will have' to be do vis eel for providing 
part-t j.i.; .■ and correspondence education in all the 
universities so that students desiring to keep 
thorns elves ; abreast with the growth of Knowledge could 
easily do so without • b.>.ing called upon to make heavy 
f in nic iul sacrifices . The admission to th.se courses 
should not be rigid and they should be open oven to 
persons who i are not normally eligible for admission to; 

L ' ; , 

a formal unive : sity .course but who desire to avail 
thorns elvos off certain specific courses at university 
level. Thirdly,; ei-s orvicev educuti on or on- the- 30b 
training will have to be .provided for all workers, 
both in the public and the private sectors, because 
such education - which shaula bo p.-.rtly profossi aial 
and partly general - assists mat or i ally in increasing 
productivity and profossi..- I officiohcy. ' Lastly, tin: 
infra-structure of informal education such as 
libraries, museums, and modern mass eomnunicati on 
media sueh|as the radio, the film, and t ho television 
will- -have' to bo- so developed that adequate facilities 
would be readily available for every individual for 
self-instruction and development. The Education' 
Commission is currently engaged in preparing a detailed 
programme for this important aspect of the problem of 
Adult 'Education 5 and in order to implom.:nt it with aut 
loss of time, it' may be desirable, to make u lump sum 
provision for it in t he fourth five Year Plan of tha 
Ttute at this stage. 

• Pro- Pr Imar/y Education ; The relevant statistics 
of pre-primary education in hajasthan are given in 
fable No, B-ll at the end. It may be stated that 
timso statistics relate only to . egular pro- primary 



62 


schools recognised by "the Education Department. They do not 
T^uludo statistics Ojf the Salvadis in rural areas which* are 
conducted either by the Community Development administration 
or by the Central Social Welfare Board. Nor do they include 
un-r oeognis od primary schools which exist in most urban areas, 

SO. The tradition in dajasthan is. to maintain good 
.pr e-primai’y schools which maintain high standards,' This is 
true of Government as well as of private pre-primary 
schools. If anything, some of the private pre-primary 
schools are' maintaining really very high standards and 
can be compared to outstanding ' milar institutions in 
any part of the country. Naturally, therefore, the 
number are limited ancithe cost per pupil is high, 

| 

.81,. lor the development of pre-primary, education during 
the next throe Plans, the following policies may be 
recommended s- 

(1) The target should bo to establish a good 
pre-primary s chool- in every Pdnchayat Samiti by t he end 
of the sixth Five Year Plan. This will imply that the 

number of such gad o-d . pre-primary schools would have to 
'bo increased to 232 as against 26 which .exist at present, 

Whore private effort comes forward to maintain such 
institutions, it should be encouraged. But where it is 
not forthcoming, the State Government (or preferably 
the Panchayat Samiti) should maintain such an "* 
institution, 

(£) Pre-Primary education is spreading in urban 

areas on a voluntary basis. No impediment should be put 

1 . ■ 
i 

in the way of its expansion. On the other hand, tfyo 
S tate should p'rovid e facilities for t he t r aining of 
pro-primary teacheffs . It is to be regretted that 

there is no training institution for pre-primary 



63 


teachers in Rajasthan at present. it is, therefore, 

recommended that the State should either establish or 

’assist- five, establishment in the private sector, of at 
1 . 

leastj ono pro-primary ' lining institution in each 
'Division. In addition, a_ system or grants-in- aid 

r 

could bo dovisod for j?. r '•*'* P r 3 * n;ar y s choo ls whic h 

servo tho una or pr iv ilego d sections o f soci e ty in urban 
. areas .0 r wor it i n rural areas . 

,(3). If pre-primary education is to spread in 
rural, areas, the cost per pupil will have to be brought 
d oHti • c on s iderably . This cou ld bo done by training local 
women, although not highly educ at- i n s.hort courses and 
helping t hem to conduct pre-primar y sc ho ols in their 

own localities under thp guidance anu supervision of the 

| — 

Panchayat 3 am it is. 3uch an experiment is Doing* -tried in 
■ Madras; and., probably, it could be adopted with advantage 
.in other areas as well. "o 

82, Education of Sched uled- Castes and Scheduled 
, TribesV ' Tlie scheduled castes ..in-Raj as than form 16.7 
•per cent- of the population ''and the scheduled tribes 
form 11.5 per ' cent . these two weaker section's of the 
society alone constitute 28.2 per cent of the total 
population. ■ In other .words , two out of every seven 
persons belong t.o- the backward classes. The problem 
■of their education and welf are^'is , therefore, of very 
great im] 


83. The statistics relating to tho education of the 
scheduled castes and schedule d tribes (lDoO-ol) are given 
, in Table 3-12 'at the -end. If J he education of tire schedule l 
castes and scheduled trio-es is- uo bo on par witn that 01 
the other communities , their enrolment in the various types 
of educational.; .institution's and at the different stages of 
education! should bear about the same percentage - to 



corresponding total enrolment as the population of these 
backw rd groups bear to the total population of the State. 

On the basis of this criteria, the following conclusions 
emerge- from- those statistics 

(1) The enrolment of the backward classes is comparatively 
much poorer, in all stages of education and in all types of 
Institutions, than that of the remaining communities. For 

I ' ! 

instance, even in primary schools, the enrolment of the 
scheduled caste children was only 23,659 or 4.4 per cent 
of the total enrolment although their ^ percentage to the 
total population was 16.7. Similarly, the enrolment of the 
scheduled tribjes jin primary schools was only 19,901 or 2.3 
per cent of the total enrolment although their proportion 
in the total population was 11,5 per cent. The enrolment 
of girls from these communities is even smaller. This 
shows how a long way we have to go before’ even universal 
primary education could be provided to these children, 

(2) At the middle school stage, the proportion of 
children from these communities drops still further. 

For instance, the enrolment of the scheduled caste 
children in the middle schools was ohly 3.6 per cent and 
that fijonjj the scheduled tribes was only 0.9 per cent. 

The implication is obvious - the w as tag e in' these 
communities is much larger than for the Society as a- 
whole. This is mainly to social and economic causes. 


(3) At the .secondary stage, there is a still fruther 
drop although it is not very heavy •- the proportion of 
the enrolment of scheduled castes to total ennolment 


being 3,2 per cent and the corresponding figure for the 
scheduled tribes being 0.6 per cent, 

(4) In higher education, there is a still further 
drop and the enrolment of the scheduled castes was only 


1,5 per cent of the total enrolment at this stage and 



rn r n 


that of oho scheduled tribes was only 0-5 per cent. 

This happens in spite of the fact that ov,ry scheduled 
caste and scheduled tribe student studying in an 
institution of higher education is given a scholarship 
by the Government of India, The number of scheduled 
caste girls studying in higher education was only 11 for 
the .State as a whole and there w as not a single girl of 
the scheduled tribes at this stage, 

(5) In vocational education, also, the picture is 
similar and to a certain extent.; even worse, Excluding 


other typos of professional 


(which mostly include 


adult education classes), the enrolment of the scheduled 


castes varies, according co 


:vpo of institution, 


from 0.6 por cent ;.n schO'. 1. of ong:iuoo r i.ng and 


technology to 4,6 per cent in technical .and industrial 
schools , while than of tl:e scned> ..led tribes varies from 
0.1 per con , an schools of meal erne , reterinanry science. 


foes varies from 


engineering and techno! • 
of commerce. Even in \f 


" ff for * e i . t in. schools 
a'; • o a - the r of o vo , greater 


attention is r.eodo 


u i,o nor.ee. 


mention of these 
social groups than has been devoted to at in the past. 

84. The- goner >1 program no for tlv. promotion of education 
of the jjSchodnlod cast an. ai:d s chedu,.Lod ■'.ribe.j is now under 
the cons idorat. icn cc the fducacion Commission and its 

recommendations in this s .ere', would bo applicable to all 

- I 

states and also to Rajasthan, is ;.s s therefore, not 
noco 3 sary to discuss eh on hero , Only one point needs to 
oe emphasized ° t he educa tion c..' t he sch eduled cas tes 

tribes is b parts of .th e country, 
— — 9 v °.h.ih unis reg ard, _ t he po s it;: o n j .i R a .i as tha n appe a r s 

i f it several otter States.* 


of the fschoduled castes. ai:d scheduled ~..rjb( 


nh-an?°a ? n -? 1G ? duc:it -- ' r * of 0 Scheduled Castes and 
chodulod iribos by Shri 0 , ■ , N ai>:* 



Tho State Government should , therefore, emphasise the 
promotion of education of these groups very largely in 
the, next throe Five fear Plans. 


35, One special point needs mention. The population of 

. 5 ; ; 

the Schedule 'i Castes and Scheduled Tribes is not equitably 
distributed between the different districts in the 3tate, 

t .tv ' ' 1 

so , that some districts have a very great handicap in these 
matters, while others have comparatively a lighter load 
to carry.* Fpr instance, the population of Scheduled 
Castes is 16.7, per cent . of the total population of tho 

i ■ i 1 

State as a whole. However, it rises to 28.7 pop cent in 

’1 . 

Ganganagar, 22,3 per cent in Sawai Madhupur, 21.4 per cent 

in Bharatpur, 21,2 per pent in Tonk and 20,5 per cent in 

•'f j - v. . 

Chittorgarh, while .it is as low as 4,6 per cent each in 

Banswara and Dungarpur, 6,5 per cent in Barmer,. 8,7 per cent 

in Udaipur.- and 12 ,7 per fcep.t in Jodhpur, The population of 

the Scheduled Tribes is 11,5 per cent of tho total population 

of tho State. - But it rises to 62,6 por cent in Banswara, 

60,1 per cent in Dungarpur, 28,6 per cent in Udaipur, 22. 2 

per cent in Sawai Madhupur and 21,9 i?or cent in Chittorgarb 

while it'is' only 0,2 per cent each in Ganganagar and Bikaner, 

0.3 per cent in N'agaur, 0,5 por cent in Churu and 1.6 por cent 

in' Ajmer -and Jhunjhunu, Taking both the Scheduled Castes and 

1 ' 

Schedule i Tribjos. ;to|ether, tho avera'go for the State as a whole 
is 28,2 per cent. But it rises to 67,2 per cent in Banswara, 
64,7 per cent in Oungarpur, 44,5 por cent in' Sawai Madhupur, 
42,4; por cent in Chittorgarh and 40,0 per cent in Sfrohi, while 
it. is only 11,9 per cent iniBarmer, 14,7 per cent in Jodhpur, 
15.0 por cent in Bikaner, 15.4 per cent in Jhunjhunu and 16.5 
per cent in Sikar. In planning programmes of .educational 
development, those districts which have a handicap of a very 
large backward class population would have to be given 
preferential treatment. 


* So3' Annexuro XVII 


details 



^vai/j.un ox~ ~cne Handicapped Children; This Is, by and 
large, a comparatively neglected area In Indian education, 
but still more so in Rajasthan, wh ich has the smallest 
number of educational institutions for this unhappy, 
group as well as the smallest enrolment. The relative 
statistics of these institutions are given in Table 
No. B~i3 at the end. It will be seen therefrom that, in 
the entire State, there are orily three institutions for 
the education of the handicapped- ch il dr en - two 'for .the. 
blind. (one at Ajmer and another at. Bikaner) and one for 
the deaf and dumb at' Jaipur*. .The total enrolment in all 

these institutions! is only 160 (150 boys and 10 girls)-, 

• . j', " • 1 v . , •’ ' ; „• - - ' 

The entire cost! on' the'"prpgrgjnujLe is 3s, 80,000. * 

• 87. Ppr the Development ..of education for handicapped 
children during the! next- three .Five Year' Plans, the 
following programmes may .be .considered; 

. ( 1) Techniques a^e’now being developed for the..- 

education of the handicapped children, along with - that of 
-normal ones, in ordinary schools. This bold programme 
has the advantage" of reducing costs very considerably. 

This matter is now'* engaging the attention of the Education 

t 

Comm iss ion and dt$ proposals on this subject will apply to 
all. States* We foel that, these programmes would have 

» v, 

to be emphasised in the long run ,md a beginning in that 
direct ion . willj have to be made In 'the Fourth Five- Year 
■ Plan itself. . " ... 


(2) The ultimate target to be reached 


of the Sixth ; Plan ^should be to establish at 


by the end 
least one 


school for the de&f and dumb and at least one school 
for the blind in eaph' district. In addition,, for the 
physically and mentally handicapped "ch il dr en* a school 
should be established, in close collaboration with the 
Medical Colleges, in each Division, The ultimate target, 



therefore, would be to establish 5V schools -5 (one in 
each Division) for the physically and mentally handicapped 
and 26 each for the blind as well as the deaf and dumb* 

A beginning in this direction may be made in the Fourth 
Five Year Plan by establishing at least one school for 
deaf or dimb (or blind) in each Division and by establish- 
ing at least one school, for the State, in close collabora- 
tion with one Medical College, for the physically and 
mentally handicapped children* 

,98. Preservation of old Traditions and Art ; Rajasthan 
has a very rich inheritance of folk songs, folk tales, 
folk dramas, folk sayings, etc* It has also. a very rich 
inheritance of traditional dances, dr&ra and music. More 
vigorous steps than in the past would have to.be taken to 
^preserve these, We were very much impressed. b,y. the 
interesting memorandum on the subject submitted by Rani 
Lakshmi Kumar i Chu da wat which has also been foi’warded to 
4 the State Government, Development on the lines indicated 
in the mem or an dum is exuremely worthwhile and adequate 
funds for the progi'ammo may be provided in the fourth 
Plan itself-.' 

89. Educ at ional A dm In latr at ion ; Educational Administration 
In India , is, by and large, weak and it i 3 very largely due 
to this weakness that most of pur best laid plans have 
gone astray. During the next three Plans, therefore, the 
strengthening of educational administration would have 
to be. a very high priority programme in all States* It 
will have to be all the more -so in Rajasthan where educa- 
tional administration was very weak in 1948-49 when the 
Rajasthan State was formed and which has cnj.y become • 
weaker during the last 17 years. 

The reasons for this persistant weakness are 


90. 



several and- can be easily summar iaed. The present 
Education Department had to be created out of a merger 
of 19 small Education Departments wh ich were,, inherited 
from the different States that went into the /format ion 
of .the -present- Rajasthan State. As usually happens in 
such cases, a personnel which was quite .adequate to oope 

. . ■' * . if , ’’ , ■ i 1 ' -, 1 1 

with the small educational administration pf the 
ef stwtiile Princely States finds its enable. to 'deal with 
the complicated and complex problems of educational 
development in a large State and particularly in a 
period like the present one when programmes of large 
quantitative expansion and qualitative improvement have 
to be pursued simultaneously. Secondly, the modes of 
recruitment and scales of pay for the Education Department 
have not been very satisfactory with the result that it 

wot boow a bio to attract taiowt* Th Hz* yoz*jr 

- r 

little effort has been put in Ibr the in-service training 
of the personnel of the Department. Finally, the general 
policy has been very niggardly in so far as. the expansion 
of the Department is concerned. In consequence,, not 
only has the Department not grown with the expansion 
of the educational system, but its strength at the end of 
the third Five Year Plan is even less than vfhat .it was 
at the end of the second Five Year Plan, In 1965-66, 
for instance* the total educational expenditure on 
Direction and Sup erv is icn would be only 1.4$ of total educa- 
tional expenditure as against 3.4$ in 1960-61. These 
inherent difficulties would have to be overcome and the 
existing policies would have to be considerably rev -is ed 
if the public is to get a proper return for the large 
investments it is making in education from year to year. 



V — 


91. In reorganizing the State Education Department, 
the following points might be Kept In view*.- 
(l) Goordinat lont At present,, the educational 
programmers ar.e : spread over a number of Departments. 

For general Education, there are as many as three 
Directors of Education - the Director of Collegiate 
Education, the Director of Primary & Secondary Education 
and the Direotor of Sanskrit Education. There is, in 
addition, a special Director for Technical Education, 
Agricultural Education is dealt with in the Department . 
of Agriculture and Medical & Health Education in the 
Medical & Health Serv ices, Department, 

' ' ' ' ;■ , • It is 

necessary that these different programmes of educational 
development should be coordinated properly and viewed 
as parts : of a c oijipr eh en s iv e whole. It is, therefore, 
desirable to create, at the State level, the following 
two organizations for the purpose of coordinat ion: - 

j( Q ) A_. jState Counc 11 of Education with the Education 
Minister as Chairman and a .suitable officer of the Educa- 
t ion Department as Secretary^ This should have on it the 

: ' I 

representatives o!f all Departments which deal with the 
above programmes, the different Directors dealing with 
} ^* riese programmes,, anjd a sufficient number' of non-official 
educationists; Its main function would be to advise the 
State Government on a coordinated development of the 
entire programme of education in the State. It may 
form special .committees or different Standing Committees 
for. dealing .with^lifferent aspects of the educational 
programme. 


^ b ) A-goordlnatlng Comm ittee at the officers level 
l° f the .Secretaries to Government dealing 



-vi 


with the above educational pru. . rammes as well as of all 
the Directors who deal with then. This Committee 
should meet frequently, about once in two or three months, 

f 

under the Chairmanship of the seniormost Secretary to 
Government, and review the planning and Implementation 
of the comprehensive programme of educational development 
formulated by the State Government on the advice of the 
State Council of Education. 

(2) Reorganization of Directorates; Until very recently, 
there were four Directors in Education - Director of 
Collegiate Education, Director of Primary & Secondary 
Education, Director of Sanskrit' Education and Director of 
Technical Education whose work was coordinated and 
supervised by the Education Secretary. A step forward 
has recently been 'taken by the appointment of the Director 
of Collegiate Education as Director of Education for the 
State and by creating the post" of an Additional Director 
of education t cj deal with primary and secondary education. 
In our opinion,! this should make for better coordination 
of policies. A similar step may be taken for coordinating 
the work of Sanskrit Education as well and integrating 

it within the Department itself. 

(3) Change in procedure for recruitment; At present, 
direct recruitment is only dqne to the posts of Head- 
masters of Secondary or Higher Secondary Schools and all 
higher posts are filled only by promotion. The result 
is that fresh blood is injected into the Department at 
the lower level only and persons of adequate talent 

who are necessary to fill the higher post s- : in. the 
Department are' not attracted to it. ,Ve feel that this 
procedure would have to be radically altered. At least 
50 per cent of the posts of the Di s tr ict' Inspector s of 



Schools should if e filled by open competition. This 

practice obtains in several States where the results 

i. * ■ 

are found to be satisfactory and it is worthy of adoption 
in Rajasthan also, 

(4) Rationalisation of pay scales; The pay scales in the 

not 

. Education Department of Rajasthan are/qulte adequately 
coordinated and will have to be rationalised. For instance, 
the scale of pay for District Educational Officers is low 
and that for the Deputy Directors of Education is very low 
indeed, especially in comparison with the responsibilities 
of the post., The qualifications prescribed for. the Head- 
masters and senior teachers of Higher Secondary. Schools are 
similar to those of lecturers in colleges. In fact, they 
may even be cqn aider ed to.be higher because a degree in 
Education:, is alio Insisted upon in addition to a second 
class M.A. degree. But the scales of pay given to. the 
senior teachers'. and. Headmasters of Higher Secondary. Schools 
are lower than those given, to lecturers in Government 
Coll eges. It is because of this lacuna that it is so 
difficult to get compet.eqt. teachers. .for higher secondary 
■ schools in Rajasthan. The same difficulty was, experienced 
in the , Pun jab where a rule, has now been adopted under which 
senior teachers of higher secondary schools g.et the same 
scales of pay as lecturers in colleges so. that, the 
difficulty has been immensely reduced. It m.ay be worth- 
while for Rajasthan also to adopt a similar reform. It 
was pointed out earlier that tne scales of pay of teachers 
in 3TC schools are inferior to those of teachers in- 
higher secondary schools and that this has an adverse 

: • ' f ' 

effect on the quality of these institutions. It. is. not 
necessary to labour the point further. ^hat has been 
I stated above is., enough to. indicate that the .entire salary 



structure of the Education Department will have to be 
' • ’* •• 

reviewed and revised from the point of view of 

- • ; r ' ! ■ 5 

rationalisation and for attracting talent. 

(5) In-service Education; There is no arrangement at 
present for the in-service education of the officers of 

_ the Sducat lion Department and necessary provision for 
this; will have to be made^very s-oon. The State Institute 
of Education should develop programmes of in-service 
education for the Extension Officers (Education) working 
at the Panchayat.. Samiti level. For officers at higher 
levels,. progranytiep of periodic . conferences, workshops, and 
seminars will have to be devised. A suitable cell should 
be created in the Directorate of Education to plan these 
programmes and to! implement them. In addition, a system 
should be devised und.er ^ wh ich. th e. officers of the .Education 
Department working op the administration side should be 
given leave on fal.l pay for six months, in every period of 
five years.. Curing the period of su,ch leave, they, should 
be requested to spend, their time in a university studying 
some problem in detail or in the field investigating upon 
some capobjU of eduoatiou wU.ibh' Interests them. . Such 
pericjdic assignments would assist in keeping them abreast 
of educational’ thought and contribute materially to the 
efficiency op the Department* 

(6) 

b ranches: At present, _ there : is some , : int er-changeability 

between the teaching and admin,istrat ive. branches; at .lower 
levels in the sense that trained graduate teachers in 
high and higher .secondary or middle schools., can. be 
posted a s^ Education Extension Officers and, draw,, during 
the period of s ^f h , pp.s.t ing^, a small allpwance.in. addition 
to their pay. But this, not enough. , Such, transfer to 
administrative posts would be extremely beneficial to the 


In terchangeabll . lty between teaching and -adminlstrat iv, 



-74- 

staff of the 3TCS; but it is not permissible under the 
present rules. The staff cjf the training colleges for 
secondary teachers Would gain considerably by being 
posted as Inspecting Officers in the field from time 
to time; and so would tho Inspecting Officers gain, 

if postedj to training institutions for specific periods, 

! 

But this interchange is not possible under the existing 
rules. Even the college teachers should be eligible for 
transfer;- if they so desire, to the administrative branch, 
if they have the necessary qualifications, should be 
eligible for being posted as teachers in colleges. Even 
in the Case of university teachers, it should be a practice 
to requisition their services, on a contract basis, to 

r . ’ ' j ' •' 

hold specific posts for specific periods. Everything is 
lost and nothing is gained by sub-div id ing- th e Education 
Department, small as it is, into a number .of 'water-tight 
and st'ill smaller compartments. It is, therefore, strongly 
recommended that the existing rules and practices should 
be so 'modified as to permit of mobility within the Educa* 
t ion ■ Department from one cadre to another or from one type 
of job, to another. 

(7) " State Board of Secondary Education: There is at 

present a State Board of Secondary Education; but its 
functions are limited almost exclusively to the holding 
of examinations. ! There is no ; rea-s.on . why they should be 
so restr icted. In fact, of fic iency . would be greater if 
problems of inspection and supervision, curriculum, and 
examination reform can be dealt with together, .</e also 
feel that, as far as possible, the State Education Depart- 
ment should be divested of direct administration of 
educational institutions, Prom this point of view, we 
have already suggested elsewhere the formation of an 



-75- 


autonomous body for the management of all Government 
colleges. On the same lines, it should be possible to 
form a statutory body for the management of all Govern- 
ment secondary schools' and for providing financial aid 
to private secondary schools. This body should be a 
small compact organ isat ion cons 1st Lng of a whole-time 
Ohairman of the status of a Vice-Chancellor, an officer 
of the Education Department as Secretary, the Director 
of Education ;..as ; a member, some representatives of the 
Universities and a few' nominated non-officials represent-' 


ing allo.ipt er est s, and particularly the secondary schools 
and teachers. For special functions like the holding of 
examinations at the end of the secondary school stage, on- 
pr epacat ipii; c||? curr icula • or improv ament of e,xam inat ions, 
it couldj.; trav e‘ adv isofy bodies. when such an organization 
is cr^at^d, the existing State Board of Secondary Education, 
may'b.^^ithtjr abjoli-shed .or merged in’ it. • we feel that such 
an organ izat ion would be academic ally- or lented, less open 
to ‘transitory pol It teal pressures and in the larger 
irtt'ar-.ests of education. • 

^ 8). District Boards- of Elementary Educationr.- On the same 


ibafs-is* we : suggest that statutory School Boards should be 
constituted in each- district to look after the development 
of? elementary education - both primary- -and. middle. it ' 
shduld ..qons 1st ''d^s^^ir.epr esentat iv of the Zilla Parishads, 
and- a- few nominated Pradhans and fton-of f ic ial educationists. 
The- District Educational Inspector should be its ex-officio 
Secretary. Suqh a body would perform the same functions for 
ei-emeniajry schools within its area as are performed by the 

State Board of Secondary Education for- th e .secondary schools 
in 'ti-iQ State. ; • • 

• (9.).- Eunctio nal Bureaux; .Our past tradition has been to 



organise tue Department, on a regional basis and through 
officials who are tra ined for all general purposes. for 
instance, we had a I- ir ret or of Education for the State, 
a Deputy Director of Education for a -Division, a District 
[n sp -i c or . for- a District an ' .1 Bub- In sp actor for a Fanchayat 
Sami i|- all of whom were generalists in education without 


any bpfic i.ul. experience and w 
e due a t i on al in a t i tu t i on 3 in 

the handipapped children to 

! ; ' , 

Eh e cays of such general sup 

and, in the- days to come,'~ti 

staff' e.d . b y p er cons e c p ev i en 0 

can n al.e their expertise ava 

masters. Some steps in this 

already. For instance, th er 

Textbooks for the preparatic 

books; there is aiVooational 

educational and vocational p 

ivai u at ion Un it ha s beer r ec 

an d i r.p 1 em en t in g exan in a t i on 
I ' ' ' 

p.f Sdicat.icn ha 1 beau eatabl 
of • elementary education, wb; 
stock cf the whole post-: ion, 
establishment c " spe.. lal ised 
with specialised- inspectors 
needed fop the impro'. em-nt c 
working of tho Depar- rae' t mo 


ere expected to look after all 
their areas, from a school for 
an experimental high school, 
ervision are largely over; 

•3 Department will have to be 
ed in different fields who 
ilable to teachers and head- 
direction have b 3 en t a k en 
e is a Nationalised Board of 
n and publication of text- 
Guidance Bureau for organising 
li dance in schools; an 
ently 'set up for the initiating 
reform; and a State Institute 
ished for ciual itnt i" e improvpment 
it is now needed is to take 
to prepare a plan for the 
institutions and personnel 
( e. g. subject inspectors) 
f schools and to re-organise 
"■e on the functional than 


01 th 1 regional basic , What is even mors important, 


and trained to perform ' ae special functions which these 
specialised, .agercies are required to Implement. Very 
j. it-tl 3 ls being done in this direction at present; and 
this ,s an area on w! ic . a great emphasis will have to be 



laid in the Fourth and the subsequent Flans. 

/I0j _3fcotg Bpjsd Qf_ 7 Ms os 

teachers - pre-service and in-service - is going to be 
the frost significant responsibility of the Education 
Department during the next 15 years. For this purpose, 
it is necessary to organise a State Board of i each , r 


Education on' the lines indicated in Annoxure XVIII. 

92 ‘ Separat ion of Supervision from Administration; 

Th -older- tradition in Indja is to combine administra- 

■tion with- supervision, .The separation of those two 

functions has often been advocated on educational grounds; 

but very few concrete steps have been taken to implement 

the recommendation.: It is, therefore, suggested that a 

I 

serious .effort should now be made to separate administration 
from supervision. If the new administrative organs 
recommended above for the administration of colleges, 
secondary schools and elementary schools are established, 
th.ey' will take over moit of the administrative functions 
with which the- Department is now saddled. The way should 
thus bo paved for confining the main responsibility of the 
Department to planning,' development and supervision. under 
the new set up, the Department should ma into in a cadre of 
•inspecting officers at different levels whoso essential 
responsibility it .would be to supervise the educational 
institutions at different levels md to guide the teachers 
and headmasters for qualitative improvement of their work 
a s w el 1 a s in exp er im an t a t i-on and in n ov a t i on . The 
organisation of |is Majesty's Inspectors in England could 
form a very good- basis for the re-organisation by the 

supervisory functions of tho Education Department under the 
new set up, . | 

93. Ext on s ion Service • if education is to improve, 



neither administration nor superv La ion is enough. It 

is essential to provide extension services on a very 

i 

- | 

large-scale to guide and help the teachers and head- 
masters. We have gained some experience- of extension 
work through - training colleges at the secondary level 
and it definitely points the way to an organisation of j 
extension 'services, to all types of educational institutions 
on a very large-scale. We fe.;l that nothing less than a 
state-wide provision of extension services is needed to 
improve the situation. As we visualise it, such an 
organisation may be built up as follows? - 

(l) All the primary schools should be grouped together 
into small compact units round either a secondary school or 
a middle school as a focal and central point. At present, 
this would imply 'th e br ing ing together of about 10 primary 
schools round each central middle or secondary school and 
ultimately this will imply only a group of 3 to 5 primary 
school's. This is not o'!" all an unmanageable group, 
especially if we remember that all these institutions would 
be within a radius of 3-7 mil os from the central middle or 
s-ocondajry school. A small standing committee consisting of 
the ’ h eadma st er of the central middle or -secondary school 
a s' Chairman and time headmasters of all the primary schools 
within it$ group as members should be set up to develop 
a programme of intensive educational development of all 
the primary schools under the guidance of the headmaster 
of the central middle or secondary school who would 
necessarily be a trained graduate. It would be a 
responsibility of the central middle or secondary school 
to provide extension services to the pr imary schools 
within the group. The teachers of these schools should 
meet together, plan their annual programmes of improvement 
under the guidance of the inspecting officers 


ma inta in 



-79- 


the necessary records of the work done and report on the 
actual ach iev ements made in duo course. 

(2) At the next higher level, the middle schools 
and Secondary schools should be so grouped that there 
would bo two or five middle schools functioning in close- 
collaboration with a seoondary school at the centre, Th >se 
institutions also should have a committee consisting of the 
headmaster of secondary -school as chairman and the head- 
masters of the middle schools in the group as members. It 
would by the responsibility of this group to carry out a 
continuous programme of improv sment of the middle schools 
under the -gu idanc e of- the inspecting officers and it would 

I 

bej-the responsibility of the central secondary school to 
provide the necessary extension services to the middle schools 

in its charge and to help them to grow. 

i 

(3) At a still higher level, the Secondary schools in 
thy State should be so grouped that there would be about 
10-15 secondary schools functioning in close collaboration 
.with a college at the centre, • Here also, a central committsc 
should b.e set up with the Principal of the College as chairman 
an.d the headmasters of secondary schools as members and it 
would be the function of this committee, under the general 
supervision of .'the. Department , to carry on an improvement 
programme for th o . secondary schools. The college would also 
by expected to provide the necessary extension services to 
the schools in Its charge, 

; (4) At the highest level, the Universities may be 

expected to provide the' necessary 'extension services to 
the colleges within their areas. 

! 

94, Dr, • Zakir :H as sain has made an interesting observation 
which hi gh 1 ig h t s a m a j o r w e a k n o s s of t h e I n d i a n e dn c a t i o n a. 1 
system, dhen he was asked about what is wrong with Indian 



education, ha humourously replied: 'the previous stage', 

-i/hat he referred to was the common habit of the 
universities to blame the secondary schools for the 
fall in their standards, that of the secondary schools 
to blame the middle schools- in their turn, and of the 

I '-'I: 

middle schooljs to blame the primary schools as the last 
dr n , ,s of the system. The pyramid of extension services 
proposed to be built on the above lines would be the 
proper remedy lor this weakness since it will make the 
institutions at a higher level responsible for improving 


the quality of the institutions which functioned at the 
n=xt lower level and serve as feeders to it. The programme 
will not be very costly, though some expenditure will be 
n^Cvooary for it, -/hat it needs mainly is an imaginative 
approach and proper organisation and earnestness in 
implementation;. :i and these are jessontially the responsibility 
of the Education Department to .prov ide. We-hop-" that , the Dep; 
reorganised on- the above lines, will have both the talent 
and the time to discharge' it adequately. 

95 ’ .I ntensive School Improvement Programmes: One of tt 

major 1 weaknesses in our attempt s ; to develop education in the 


first three Piv.e Year Plans is. the large emphasis placed 

! 

on expenditure of money. It is true- that better and mor 


plentiful education does used more investment and more 
■ physical resources. But it needs human efforts even more - 
the combined efforts of- officers of the Education Department, 


th„ teachers, the students and the parents. Today, th-'ra 
is a tendency for each of these human agencies to work 
loss and .less, .both in -quantity and in quality, and to 
demand more and more of financial investment and physical 
facilities on the ground that, these are inescapable for 
b ett er . oducat ion. There are two p. nts to be remembered 


in this context* • (a) it is much easier. 


a s J r . 


D. 3. Kothari 


a r tm 



- 81 - 


hqs .said, to spend money than thought, especially if it 
is someone disc's money; and (b) while qualitative 

I 

improv ••anont . does need larger investment in funds, it 
nj_ds hard work and proper organisation even more. It 
is, therefore, suggested that the main programme of the 
Education department during the n^xt thro..- Five Year Flans, 
and part icularly in the fourth Five Year Plan, is to 
motivate the human agencieSj concerned to a more intensive 
and better planned endeavour. The basic assessments 
underlying this important programme may be stated as 
f ollow s: - 

( 1 ) The main spring of the qualitative improvement 
of educat ion ■ lies in t-he will and effort of the people 
concerned with the programme of instruction ; parents 
of the school community, teachers, administrative and 
supervisory personnel, and students. An intelligently 

■planned and cone verted action on the part of these human 
a gene i es, continuously maintained over a sufficiently 
long period, will secure' gr mter improvement in quality 
than any financial investment, however large, can 
ever hope to do. The basis of this mov-ement should, 
therefore, be to motivate these human agencies to put 
in their best efforts, in a coordinated manner, for the 
improvement of education and to maintain the tempo of 

action go generat. 1 over a fairly long period, say, the 
next three plans. 

(2) Every educational institution, even within its 
existing resources, limited as they may be, can do a 
great doal to improve the quality of education it 
provides, chrough better planning and harder work. This 
does not mean that no attempt is to be made to improve 
the physical resources available to the institution. 

In fact, one of the primary objectives of the movement 
would bo to try to provide better physical resour c ::s to 
educational institutions through the' combined efforts 
of the State and the community. But what is amphas tzed 
i’S tho possibility of improving the educational programm 
through better planning and harder work, in spite of the 
deficiencies in physical resources. 

f 

( S j lo obtain the best results in the Improvement 
programme, it is essential to regard each institution 
as a unit, complete in itself, and to prepare a fairly 
long-range programme for its development, through 
the concerted thinking of the parents, t, sobers and 
tho Department i w ith the specific objective of providing 

the best possible programme of education to .each child 
enrolled. 

(4) The secret of the success of the improvement 
^ l? j®fa ruT1,= ^ cs two things : (a) intelligent planning 
and lb) continuity of effort which should animate all ~ 



-82 


activities, day after' day and year after year. 

/ . - (&) . Irt a ;situatidn of the type wh ic-h we now 
’ have in India,., where human' resourc os are far more 
plentiful than the physical ones, only those 
'programmes! can hope to.,, succeed which emphasize the 
use] of physical resources and stress the achievements 
of the humjan factor -through harder, well-planned 
•and coat inuous effort. ; .So far, the basic approach 
in programmes of qualitative improvement has stressed 
the provision of physical facilities rather than the 
operation of the human factors. The 'improvement 
programme nirnq to reverse this process, and to stress 
the role which the sum total of the combined efforts 
of teachers, supervisors, parents and students them- 
selves can make io qualitative improvement of educa- 
.. ; tion. " ' : ! I 1 t 

96. So far Madras is the only State which has launched 
upon a school improvement programme which Is mostly confined 

(• ' ' j 

to the provision of better physical amenities in schools and 
to the provision of better ancillary services to students. 
These are n ec eS-sar'y.- no doubt. But what is even more 
important is to innovate the programme of instruction in 
educational ins-t itu’tion s - a task wh ich would be possible 
only if the- Kadfas programme of. seeking- the assistance and 
co-operation - of' parents is built upon., the scaffolding of 
the 3tate-wijde| scheme of ext ension sorv ic es. outlined above. 

97. One important point needs mention. At present, ther 
| is a great. .rigidity and inelasticity, in educational 

admin istrat ion-: everywhere and Rajasthan is no exception 
to ,th is general ’rule. k Everywhere we went, we heard serior 
complaints by- headfftasters. that they had hardly any author i 
and that ; almost every detail of* the life of a school was 
regulated by the orders of the 'Department. The manage- 
ments of private institutions also complained of rigid 
departmental attitudes and attempts at controlling even the 

le^st important- details. The peed to change these old 

. ; , jj : 

trpditicps cannot [be ovar-emphk sized. a have overdone 
the | idea of creating uniformity and regulating the 

; h‘. : " * 

educational process through comprehensive Departmental . 
Codes. This- hajs killed all freedom and initiative and 



reduced oxp ,;r Ian on t a t ion' to th« minimum. -■•Jo must now 
in it la to a new process 'under which teachers will enjoy 
greater freedom of work' and headmasters would be trained 
better and given the authority 'to commit mistakes'. As 
Prof. 0. R, Gadgil has observed in bis memorandum to the 
Education Commission^ 'Indian Education is not suffering 
today from a plethora of experimentation or great div .rs ity 
of approaches. On the contrary, we ar ; still operating as 
under the dead- weight of colonial administration. It is 
not uniformity or correct procedure but independent think- 
ing, working outjj' a variety of approaches and schem es and 
bold experimentation, that wo need most." To stimulate this 
^novation and experimentation amongst teachers, headmasters 
and principals Is the greatest challenge, as well as 
opportunity, of the Education department in the days ahead; 
and the re or ganisation wo have r jc omm ended a b ov e is pr imar il y 
intended to ^nab-le the Department to fulfil this now role. 

-v e hope that the significance of this programme would be 

v, 

adequately realised and that the State Government would 
rise to the occasion by providing- necessary funds for the 
strengthening- and reorganisation- of the Education Department 
in the fourth ^ive Tear Plan} on a. priority basis and that 
the officers of the G^partmont would rise tc the great 
intellectual challenge which the now approach involves. 

98, P inane e ; Educational expenditure in Rajasthan has 

. , .'I 

increased considerably during the first three "Eiv e-Year 
•Plans, In 1950-51, the total educational, expenditure in 
the Gtatc was Rs. oil. 29 lakhs. It increased to Rs. 522.04 
laxhs at the end of the first five-year flan, which implies 
- in tv ur'ig.o annual in or on so of 10 • 9% as against n n 
annual increase- of 10,6^ in India as a whole. At the end 
of the second five-year Plan, the total educational 



-84 


expenditure increased to Rs. 1267.90 lakhs, which implies 

an average annual increase of 19. 4$ as' against an average 
" . * 

annual- •incneasa' crf l2>-5^ only in India as a whole. Th is 

large increase was duo to two reasons; increase in enrolment 

and Improvement of salaries. At tho end of the third 

five-year Plan, 'the total educational expenditure is expected 

to increase still further to Rs. 2 1 70.33 lakhs, which implies 

an annual average increase of 11.4% as against tho 

estimated average annual increase of 10$ for the 

In dim Union as a' whole. In 195H-51, the total educational 
per head of population 

expendituro/was only Rs. 2.7 at. tho end ofthc first Plan, 

Rs. 6,6 at the end of tho second Plan and is expected to rise 

i • I: 

still further to Rs. 9,2 at the end of the third Plan. In f 
1950 - 51, it is estimated that the State spent about 10*^ '-A2« ' 
of its budget on education, although the precise statistics 
are not available. In 1955-56, this increased to 15$; at 
tho end of the second Plan, tho State spent 21.5$ of its 
budget on education; and tho proportion has' remained 
fairly constant during the third five-year Plan. The 
recommendation of the Kher Committee was that each State 
Government should spend 20$ of its budget on education, 
Rajasthan has fulfilled this target. Among the less advanced 
States of the Indian Union, Rajasthan stands second in 
making the most intense effort for the development' of 
education - as measured ' y tho percentage of the State 
budget devoted to education - tho first place going to 
■Madhya Pradesh vh ich spends about 29$ of its budged on 
e due at ion. 

991-5; Total educational expenditure according to 
3 curc os ; Thu follovi ng Table shows the growth of total 
educational expenditure in Rajasthan according to sources: 



- 05 - 


Expendituro on Educational Institutions by 3ou r>cu a 


(Rs in l:i ! ;ha) 


It em 

Year 




- 

1950-51 

19 55-56 

1960-61 

1965.66 

1 . Government' 
Fund 3 

237.08 

423. 20 

10 73. 82 

1*822. 80 

Percentage to 
total- 

(76.1) 

(81.0) 

(84. 7) 

(84.0) 

2. Distr ict . : 


-■fl 


' '' 

Boarda/H. B. 

3.58 ’ 

icr. 37 

4.03 

2.00 

iercentage to 
total 

■ (1.2), 

(2.0) . 

(0,3) 

(0. 1) 

3. Fees ' , 

26. 20 

_ „ .46, 77 

113.90 

200.20 f 

I- er c..en td g e; .to 
total 

(8.4) 

(9.0) 

• (9.0) 

1 

(9.3) 

4. Endowment 

32.36 

24.65 

59.83 

90. 10 

Percentage to 





td’k.yl*-; ' 

(10,4) 

(.4.7) 

( 4. 7) 

(4.1) 

5. Other Sources 

• 12.07 

47.0 5 

16. 27 

55. 23 

Percentage to 





total 

(3.9) 

(3.3) 

■ (1.3) 

(2.5) 

Total 

311. 29 

522.0 4 

1267.90 

2170. 33 

.'*s= • 100 . 

It wi 11 

be seen t ha 

t, in Rajasthan, the State 

Gov or nr 

nent funds 

provide ..0 

out 84?£ of 

the total educational 


expenditure as against- dbout lh% in the Indian Union as a 
whole. The larger responsibility in educational financing 
which thj State has to assume in Rajasthan is due to three 
reasons; (a) the local bodies in Rajasthan contribute very 
little to educational expenditure- as compared to the erstwhile 
British Indian provinces where a tradition of local 
participation in education was built up 3 inc-e 1882. (2) The 

rates of fees levied in Rajasthan are low and the concessions 



- 86 - 


in fees are also very largo so that the total amount 
received' by. way iOf fees 'is comparatively smaller - 9.5% in 
Rajasthan as against about 17% . In the Indian Union as a 
whole# (3) similarly., tbe total contribution from endowments 
and donations — vJn ich are mainly secured by private 
enterprise - iAlso meagre because, by and large, ..a largo.' 
proportion of the educational institutions in Rajasthan are 
maintained by the State. 

1^1. If the programme of educational expansion and 


improvement outlined in the preceding section is to be 
evolved during the next three Plans., it is obvious that the 
total educational - ' expenditure will increase immensely. 

An important point of policy in this context is; whether 
tho total additional burden would be shared by non— governmen - 
resources to a greater extent and if so, in what manner? 

10 2 * Local Taxation: Local taxation' could be ,a very 

..important source of. financing education in Rajasthan if it 
is properly developed. 1 At present, the urban areas do not 
make any contribution to educational expenditure. In 
several States of India,, on educational cess is levied on 
urban property for the support of education. Rajasthan may 
consider the adoption of this practice and impose an 
educational cess on housing properties in all municipal 
areas, either on the basis of the annual, letting value or j 
on thw basis of the capital value of urban property. Therb 
is po reason why. an education cess between 2 to 5% of the 
annual lettirig value of the urban property should not be 
levied in the State. The proposal could be made more nccoDtafc 
by prescribing certain conditions which should go with it 
such as the following:- 



-87- 


: (a) The receipts from the educational cess would 

not be utilised to reduce the existing expenditure of 
Gov ernment -vjr it h in the municipal area concerned; 

,■ a ,(.b). All .r ec e ipt s ^ frojm 'the educational cess raised 

within) a municipal area would be pooled into a fund earmarked 

! ; . , ■" ! , 

for, that area and would be utilised for the improvement of 
educational -facilities within that area; and . 


,. ; ( c) Tp.. ; sortie; extent, the funds thus raised locally 

would be; suppl;em’ent.bd'''by' ; a State grahtr in-a id for the 

development of local education. ‘ 

' . . . 

103,..,.,. What; -has been said above of urban property would 
also be, applicable, mutat Is - tnutandis , to rural property as 
well, .alh.pre. :qiDuld be a^. -State law authorising the Panchayat 
Samitis; tp K lev:y :an edUdat-ional cess on the houses in rural 
areas ass-well. : as- .on. : cultivated lands. The cess on houses 
c ou 1 d -b cL on ; an - ■ a d-h o c bad l : s : vfa lie that on the cult ivat ed 
lands may- dp, related to .the land rev enue, ' A minimum rate 
of cess . sh|puld ,be obligatory for a 1 1 P a n c h try a t s ' a n d they 
sh.Qul.di havla the opt ion, : to ■ incr ease it to a max imum limit 
prescribed in the. State law. ' To. encourage them to do so, 
th e §tat.e should prom.is e. : a ' grant s- in-aid equal in amount 
to the. amount of additional ce-ss raised locally by the 

" ■ i . , r 

Panchayat 'Sam it is. ; All •receipt s 'from such' cesses, along 
with the grant- in -a id from State lands thereon, could be 
pooled together for .the area of the Panchayat Sam it i and 
utilised by it . •( or . other organ isat ions responsible for 
educational development- within the area) for improvement of 
facilities within that area. 

104. . Pe^; Fee^.form- an important source of revenue 

^in Rajasthan,} next. inj : significance to the contribution from 
State .funds* ..It will, a l.so . be seen from the statistics given 
above that their contribution is increasing ’considerably, 



In 1950 - 51, their contribution was Rs. 2 ( 5.2 lakhs or 
! ' ' - . ' ■ j: 

8.4jper cent of the total expenditure. -hi 1955-56, | 

it increased to Rs. 46, 77 lakhs or 9 per cent of the 

total expenditure. In ' 1960-61,. it increased still 

further to Rs. 113,90 lakhs or 9 per cent of the total 

expenditure; and in 196)3-66 it is estimated to reach 

Rs.200.20 lakhs or 9.3 per cent of the total educational 

expenditure. This increase has been due to two reasons 

- increase in total enrolment, Especially in secondary 

and higher education where fees are mostly charged, and 

increase in the rates of fees. ' By and large, it may be 

said that the first of these factors has made a greater 

contribution to the increase in the revenue from f,,s. 

The main problem to -e decided now is • whether the 

policy in the next three Plans should be to increase 

fees and there-by to make their contribution to total 

educational expenditure more significant or to reduce 

fees still further? 


105. At the elementary stage " in Rajasthan - primary 
as well as middle - education is entirely free except 
in a few private institutions where fees are charged. 

In Government schools, however, there are small levies 
made from students for purposes games etc. and the total 
collections average about a rupee per pupil per year. 
There is no reason why even these levies should be mad. 


and they will become more and more objectionable as 
children from the lower and weaker strata of society 
(and especially girls) begin to come into schools. It 
would, therefore, be a good thing if these are totally 
abolished and it is laid down, from the Fourth Five-Year 

P l an ; ltself ' that n ° l^y of any type - colled a tu itiion 
fee or by any other name - would be levied in elem,nttry 
schools - primary and middle. 



106. At the secondary stage , the income from x ,es iS 
still large - about 3s. 60 lakhs. It mus.t be remembered, 
however,, that a large proportion of the. students at the 
secondary stare enjoy free studentships. For instance, 
all girls are free. Free studentship is also •; iv -n to 
boys of the Scheduled 0 QS t, 33 and Scheduled Tribes, teachers 
o -r.\ ing und^r Panchaycit 3a: . it is. Gov eminent servants whose 
pay is less than 3s, 400 p.m.', parents whose total annual 
incane does not exceed > 1200 per year, ex-servicemen who 
hav* i^ettljod in Rajasthan and are permanently disabled, 
persons who wore killed as a result of the hostilities in 
KSFA .and Ladakh, service-men who are engaged in the 
operational area, and swarankars who have been rendered 
unemployed. About 90 - 35/* of the students . in secondary 
schools thus receive free education. It may, therefore, be 
desirable to abolish all tuition fees till the end of Glass 
X in Government schools. A similar concession should be 
made available in private schools also, the loss to manago- 
inonts bo ing made good by a n adjustment in the grant-in-aid. 
'Ihis would be a- step ahead and would not involve any gr 3 at 
financial loss under the existing circumstances. The 
educational policy of the State should be to make admissions 
to secondary schools on the basis of- merit - the qualifying 
examination proposed by us at the end of Ci. ss VIII would ; 
s -I’Ve this purpose - and to give education free to all ch os ] 
whothus qualify themselv as. The Congress manifesto at 
dhubnnjswar also speaks of providLng free education to the 
end of the* secondary stage as an important programme of 
introducing socialism. ,, feel that the situation in 

Rajasthan is now ripe for taking this step which has already 
been taken by Madras. 

107. The present rat , s of „ in cls„ XI are 7s.3 p . m . 

for non lncano-tax payors and %. 4 p.m. for incomo-tax payors. 



In the) collegiate clashes the following rates of tuition 
fees prevail ! - 

Class Income-Tax payer N on - In c om e - T a x p a v ;r 

1. P.U.C. 

1st Year T DC (Arts, 3s,6 p.m. 3s, 3 p.m. in Arts 

Science & Commerce). • ' & 3s. 3; 50 in Science 

A: Commerce. 

2.. II and. |II Yr. TDC _ . 3s. 4 p.m. in Arts 

(Arts, Science, ’ 3s. 8 p.m. and Commerce and 

. . Cojoaer-c.l) • 3s. 4. 50 in Science, 

‘ ' r' & 1 : 

3., A. /B. .Com. / b, 3c. ( Conv ent ional) . 

3. M. A* /M. Com^M. 3c. t , , , 3s, 12/- p.m. . 3s.8,00 per month. 

In the University of Rajasthan 3s, 200 per annum are 
charged from student s reading in M, A. and M. Sc, -3s. 300 are 
charged as tuition fee in H.B.H, Engineering College, Jodhpur, 
now teaching department of Jodhpur University.- 
108. At the higher secondary and collegiate stages , the 
policy should be entirely different. Here, an attempt 
should be .to increase . fees to-the ext.ent possible. In class 
XI (as well as in; the new class XII which we have recommend- 
ed, for addition), the rate of fees sh.ould be the same as in 
the - P.U.C. cla.sses and., if possible, these' could be raised 
still further,. ’The rates of fees in the under-graduate 
and post-graduate stages could be increased by 25 to 50$ 
at least. These proposals would be in the larger interests 
of. education; ansi ma-y be . consider ed by jthe State Government. 

In order, however, that increased rates should not cause 
any hardship to deserving students, we have already recommend- 
ed an increase in the number and amount of scholarships. 

In addition, fee grants may be given to students in ^deserving 
cases which could | be specifically defined. Our proposal 
br iefl y amount s to this; while the fees of a poor but 
deserving s.tudont . should be re-imbursed by the ^tate in full, 
either in^cash, or through the award of free studentship, 
there should be. an attempt, to raise .the general, level of 



tuition f-.es at the higher secondary and collegiate 
stages.. . • 

109, .lie have recommended earlier that minimum 
conditions of attainment should be laid down for 
admissions to higher .education, .Under the present orders, 
these conditions are operative only in Government colleg es 
and pr ivat.ji- oolTeges ,ar e free to .admit students who have 
secured a iowor-percehtagy ' of marks. It may bo desirable 
to make these jeonditions applicable 'to all ;.-inst itut ions - 
Government as well as private. 'If, f.or any reason, it is 
not possible to do so, we suggest an. alternative technique 
of -gbant- iri-aid..^ .inhere should be no dir jbt grant- in-a id to ; 
pr ivnte’ colleges; which-- 'should be expected to meet q.ll their 

f - # » • ■ * V ... 

,;exponctiture through the' levy of tuition fees,’ But ,in the 

o.aso-of students who e.fu If il the m.inimum Conditions for 

adm.iss’ion, the. ..ent ire- foe* amount should be re-imbursad by 

the State in cash. IDhd's'will be an indirect and convenient 

form of grant- in-aid to.. prdvhte colleges. It will not 

P_n ev lalgher education of any qualified student • at 

- . . . ! . ■ . . * 

the- same time, . it • will eh sure that the >tatj is not made 

l iable- to pay for . the higher education of a student who, 

, lb lbs op in ion, is not qualified for it, . In a democratic 

context where a dm is si ops to higher edpeat ion’ cannot be 

strictly regulated qq t.he i .sis of merit, the adoption 

of th-isUf inane ial devica is th a m in toum essential to s.o 

that, public funds are utilized to the best possible 

adjan^ag;©* | i; ' . . , , e ; " ' _• 

110, ! '‘'"School Im provement Funds find that, at the 

present moment, there .is a <great desire on th'b part of i 

parents, to 'sols that Ijh-efr children got good educat ion. 

Thoro is alba a general desire to pay. for this better 
education, if it could^.be ensured. vV ©, therefore, find that- 
an incroasing ' proportion of parents, especially in urban 



areas, is sending their' children to private schools which 
charge heavy foos and refuse to seek admission to a 
Government school' where education is free but is' not of 
the desired quality. A method Dias to bo devised to tap 
fruitfully this desire of parents for better standards 
in education, v/o, therefore, propose that in educational 
inst itut ion js ’ from the middle school standard and above, 
a School Improvement ,Fund should be instituted with effect 
from the "fourth Five Year Plan.- This fund, which shall bo 
separately mainltained for each school, will consist of 
contributions from the following sources; - 

( 1) An 'improvement fee levied frem the students at 
such rate as may bo prescribed by Government in all govern- 
ment institutions and in private schools, at such higher 

: .j- 

rate (not exceeding 100 per cent of the Government rate) as 
the' private management may decide; 

(2) All voluntary contributions from the parents or 
from- the local public; 'and 

(3) A grant-in-aid fr- m the State funds made on the 
basis of certain criteria such as the poverty of the 
locality or the amount, of the local contribution., 

Rj^ujar accounts of the School Improvement Fund should 
be maintained separately for each school. The Headmaster 
should be in charge of the Fund and there should be a local 
advisory committee' to decide the manner in which it could be 
. utilised.- — By- and' large, the" ob ject of the Fund would be to 
assist poor students and to improve the amenities provided 
in th «, school such as library, laboratory, physical education 
facilities, extra-curricular programmes, etc. we feel that 
th.. institution of such a fund, if properly developed, would 
go a long way in evoking parental and local cooperation in 
improving facilities in schools and relieve the public 
exchequer of ,a burderj to ! 'a corresponding extent. This 



experiment, which has worked very well in the elementary 
schools of Prance, has alscj) been tried with success in 
certain parts ol the country, for example, in the Surat 
district of Dujarnt State, It is worthy of adoption 
on a nationwide basis. ’* - 

1U * T^ tal Finances R squired; If the programmes of 
quantitative, and: qualitative improvement .outlined in the 
preceding -sections are to be implemented, It is obvious 
that there will have to be a very large increase in total 
educational expenditure in the ^tate. We broadly estimate 

■ i ■ , • ' 

that the tptal educational expenditure will have to be 
increased to about % 140 crores by 1980-81 which will-roughly 
be equal to 9s. 41 per head of population as against ^9*2 

at the end of the Th ir d 7 Piv e-Year Plan. The details of our 

► : ' ;■ 

calculation are given in. .^nnexure XIX. This implies an 
average annual increase of 13. 2 per cent in educational 
expenditure during 'the next three Plans,. Large as this 
•expenditure appears, it . is in. scalable if a really .good 

■system of education is to be provided to all the children 
of the State. 

112 ‘ — —P f 0P: , y | f: DoV o l °P^ Jnf and Pr ior it i t . a . it i s 


obvious that! the fct&te: has a long way to go to create a good 
system of education. During tire next 15 years', there will be 
many claims on the Limited resources available from a variety 
of .edu.cational programmes, and-'the,inost difficult a task would 
be, to determine prpper prior it ios.. and to adopt a good 
strategy of development. Prom this point" of view, a few 
suggestions aro r mad£ hero# 

( ^ ££-?Parat.ion of D istrict Educational Development 
--• an Sj - An uC i uc 'it ional survey of ..the State was carried out 
in 1957. This was the first exercise of its type and rather 
limited in scope to the provision of facilities for elementary 
education. It., is necessary now to revise this survey Q3 a t th , 



end of the Third; Five-Year . Plan. The object of the. 
revised survey would be to prepare comprehensive plans 
of educational dev elopmon t for each district in view of 
the expansion programme likely to be adopted- during the 
■ n.ext three P.iv e-Year Plans. Such carefully prepared 
District Development Plans in education are absolutely 
essential if. resources are not to be wasted. Even in Phgl and, 
• thej local, -education authorities are required to prepare 
careful, plans of 'educational development in the ir,.. nr e.n s after 


taking into c on sidorat ion the pr -sent and perspective no ;ds 
oi education. It would be desirable to .adopt provisions 
.analogous,, to those contained- .on th is subj oct .in t,ho English 


Education Act of. 19,4,4 






At present, 


■ there is no strong planning unit in the State. It is 


suggested that a sufficiently strong unit should be organised 
without delay and charged with: the responsibility, of preparing 
short — term and long-term plans. For the proper development 
of .education, we . n ood • a long-term plan spread over a period 
of 15 to .20 years. It should be the responsibility of this 
unit to prepare such a perspective plan for, the State and to 
revise it from, year to year in the light of experience gained 
so that, at any given time, n perspective, spread over the 
next 15 to 20. years would always be available,- It should 

als j° be lr > char? ge of , the Fourth Five-Year Plan and the Annual 
plans prepared from , year to year. 

, ( 5 ) .. By u lu a 1 1 on ; At present, there is no machinery 
for evaluation of education programmes from time to time. 

It , is, therefore, absolutely essont ial to create a special 
.unit in the Education. Department for this purpose. The 
main function of this Unit, which would not have any day- 
to-day administrative responsibilities, would be to evaluate 



the different programmes undertaken from time to time 
In addition to-. its activities, the assistance of 
universities and other 1 dependent organisations in the 


State may also -be sought, from time to time, for the 
evaluation of vspec if ic programmes. In th e absence of 


such an evaluation, we tend to learn very little fran the 
experience gained in the >. v elopment of education and our 
plans continue, to get stereotyped into some routine or the 
other. 1 he establishment of -a good unit for evaluation 


^ | h - 3 fourth Five-Year Plan would avoid such dangers 
in future.- 

Is obvious that the amount, required 

for th e Ult im, at e. educ at iohal dev el.opment is v ery large and 

that we will have to Increase ,<our educational expenditure 

from about ,R : s. .9 per head of populat ion to about. 41 per head 
^ .... v '' 
of , In this context, the main question is to ' 

decide adequate ^Mlr it;les in. the light of which -additional 


funds WiiiL £>p invest 




available. From thi; 




p o rnt of V low , th e "‘f utlowln^^sugg e st ion s !v c$& pufe?- forward 
for con.sid.erat ion; , 

(.1).. .To$ priority should be given to a programme of 
making primary education -.universal in the State. A 3 has 


beo-n pointed out, it woul-d be possible to 'reach this goal 
by the encj of the Fifth Plan. To ach lev e"th is target, 
concentrated: efforts would have to be made for, the educations 
of girls and for the education of Scheduled Pastes and 
Scheduled Tribes. Steps will also have to-be taken to 
equalise educational opportunities at this stage from district 
district and, evfen within the same district, from one 
Pan oha ya t Sam it i to an oth or* 

( ii) At th . middle -school stage, the main emphasis 

should be on universal; prov is ion of middle schools and. to 
create,, as soon as possible,, one middle school to every 



3 to 5 primary schools. The principle objective at this 
stag. saovild bp. improvement of quality and expansion, 
should be rolled on mainly thrbup;h ; prov la ion of facilities 
and part-time education. 

( iii) ‘After the above provision is made for fulfilling 
the directive contained in article 45 of th e' Con st itut ion , 
the first priority should be for the educatiqn of gifted 
children and for the establishment of a number' of high 
quality institutions at ev 3 ry stage. The programme of • 
scholarships at the secondary ‘and-unly qr sit y stages -and the 
programme of maintaining high quaiity primary, middle and 
secondary schools and colleges will, therefore, have to be 
emphasised an.d developed as the top priority programme during 


the next 15 years. 

f 

(iv) The fourth priority... should be for the development 

of Post-graduate education and research. Th is -is nb selut oly 
: . . f 

es sent ial. .if standards are to-be raised. ; 

(v) The fifth priority should be for the development 

of vocational education, ' both at the Secondary and 1 the 

collegiate stages. Here, the programme of expansion 11 

have to bo bu ilt .upon an' indicat ion of plan requirements 

which may bo~ determined from time to time. 

'"(vi)_The sixth priority should be for institutions of 

general yoducat ion. at the secondary and' collegiate stages. 

Here, the main- l.imitat ions will be the availability of funds 

and 'teachers. At •-.present, expansion. ..is attempted in these ' 

sector s t Bjr diluting standards at the in st itu t ional 1 c-v el . 

This- unhealthy practice should be stopped and an attempt should 


be made to m a in t ; 


in minimum standards for all institutions at 


level , whether Government or private, 
ma intenance of standards, the "largest . possibl 
b e permitted; 


Subject to 
e expansion 


su c h 

rn o \t 

A ' <• j 



342,272 


1.1 . Area in Square Kilometres tt 

1. 2 Locat ion; - 

(a) North. Latitudes Between *. 23°3' « 30°12' 

(b) East Longitudes "'••• ; . 69°30'& 78°17> 

s 1.3 Number of districts * 26 

1.4 Number of v pities and Towns .♦ 145 

1.5 Number of Panchayat Sam it is .. 23 2 

1.6 Number^'.of ‘ V illages ; ( 1961 Census . . 32,240 


2., Format ion of Ra j asthan 

of the Union t Dqte of for- Name of the States 
formed ■ 1 mat ion forming the union 

i — “ ; : — Lj - — — : — — — — — — : 

: . ■ ' j ,■ ... I 

. I* Matsya . .p;. 117-3-1949 1. Alwar 2, Bharatpur 

. 3. Dholpur 4. Karauli. 

II. Ra jasthan( Former) 25-3-1948 1. Banswara 2. Bundi 

y V . 3. Dungarpur 4. Jhalawar 

j j 5. Kishangarh 6. Kota 

! 7. Pratapgarh 8, Shahpura 

9. Tonk. 

Ill, United State of 18-4-1948 1. Udaipur. 

*ajasth a n( II + III) 

IV;, United State of 30-3-1949 1, Bikaner 2. Jaipur 

Greater Rajasthan 3, Jaisalmer 4, Jodhpur, 

■. ( II 4 HI -h IV) 

V. United State of 15-5-1949 1, Matsya. 

Greater' Rajasthan 
( 14 H+ HI 4 IV) 

VI. Ra jdsthan ( I-f II 4 26-1-1950 1. Sirohi, 

III 4IV 4VI) 



VII. Rajasthan (Reor.ga- i_ii_iQ56 
nised) ( I 4 II 4 - , 

III+'BS^VI 4VII) 


1. Ajmer 2. Abu 3. Sun el 
Tappa 4. Siron j(Trans- 
f erred to Madhya Pradesh) 






Annexure I 


Education of the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled 


Tribes in Ra.iasthan 
( 1960-61 ) 

Population of Scheduled Castes = 33,59,640 

Percentage to Total Population = 16.7 

Population of Scheduled Tribes = 23,09,447 

Percentage to total Population = 11.5 

Total Backward Class Population ) 
as percentage of total popula- j 28.2 

tion ) 


r 


Storage 

' Enrolment! 


Scheduled j Enrolment of 

: Percent age to total 

of 

T"! "n * • 

I ! Cas-I 

tes 

JSche duled 

; enrolment of the 


Education ’ ’Castes ; enrolment of _ 

! ! ; Scheduled i Scheduled 


j « 


* 

: Castes 

i Tribes 

Primary 

38,659 

19,901 

4.4 

2.3 

middle 

1 1 , 248 

2,781 

3.6 

0.9 

Seco ndary 

6,336 

1,189 

3.2 

0.6 

Higher 

447 

141 

1.5 

0.5 

* 

Vocational 

13,483 

4,332 

13.8 

4.5 


If the education of these classes had been on 
par with that of the general population, the percentage 
of theirj enrolment at various stages of education would 
be equal to the percentage of their population to total 
population. But the above statistics establish 
conclusively that the education of these classes has 
I an immense leeway to make at all stages of general ’ 
education. 


Ann^xure II 

rxtract from the .Memorandum submitted by the State 
Government to the Education Commission relating to 
the Rdi|cation of Girls. 

A serious aspeot of the educational development in 
Rajasthan, is the slow pace 1 of enrolment of girls at the 
primary anji middle school 'stages. Riven by the end of 
1965-66 the percentage of ■ girls in the 6-11 age group would 
be only 26.4$ and in 11-14 age group 9.9 $ as against 87.2 
and 37.1 per cent among 1 boys in the corresponding age 
groups. The Government; have been concerned about this slow 
pace, jilthough the main’ reason for. this is the socio- 
economic structure of the State, special efforts will have 
to be made to improve the percentage of enrolment of 
girl®. Amipng the measures which' are under the considera- 
tion of the Government as recommended by various bodies for 
increasing the enrolment of girls are these *•- 

(a) One of the reasons for this low enrolment is j 
'djearth of women teachers. Their number in elementary’ [ 
schools ' is 6201 as against 43981 male teachers. Conditions 
of work in rural areas are admittedly hard, and special 
incentives are required to induce women teachers to go 
there. It seems unavoidable that a rural allowance should 
be given to women teachers serving in rural areas. 
Residential accommodation for these teachers is npt to be 
found easily,.; The existing system under which the 
Fanchayats/Panchayat Samitis are required to make the 
matching share against the Government's share of Rs 2500 
has not worked successfully. In the Fourth Plan, it is 
proposed to provide the full amount required for 
construction of quarters from the Government. 

(b) Several parents in rural areas tend to treat their 
girls lips a help to the more grown-up women of the house- 
hold. To the natural, reluctance to dispense with this 



- 2 - 

aexp, is added the expenditure on text— books and other reading 
and writing material. This will have to be subsidised 
by the Government. 

(c) Girls, as mentioned above, are an essential part 
of the domestic economy ev.enan the 6-14 age group. They 
help the elderly women in the house, take the cattle to graze 
and carry food for the members of the family working in the 
fields, As a practical measure, therefore, it would be 
necessary to evolve a tijne table which would net call for any 
major sacrifice from the parents of the girls. It is, there- 
fore being examined if the time table for girls could be sc 
adjusted as tej be confined to about three hours a day, at 
least in classes I and II. The percentage of wastage among 
girls is , also very high. For this, continuation classes and 

schemes of part-time education will have to be devised and 
tried. 



- 101 - 
Anne dure III 
Enrolments in Class I 


.. . ... . .. 1 —.. 

Year 

Total enrolment Percentage over the Percentage of increase 
in Class I previous year in enrolment in Clasp I 

i ; to the increase in teta! 

. ' ' 1 enrolment in classes 1 I- 

V 

1 


■ 1 n ( 

3 

: 4 

1950-51 


1, 28,797, 



1951-51 


1,17,691 | f 

(-) 8.62 


1952-53 


1,30,893 ! : 

11.22 

44.5 

1953-54 


1,41,661 

8. 23 

36.2 

1954-55 


1,56,654 

' 10.58 

48.4 

1955-56 


2, 10,404 

34.31 

70.4 

1956-57 


2, 25,005 

6.94 

19.7 

1957-58 


2,60,438 

15.75 

52.5 

1958-59 


3,44,,384 ; 

32.23 

54.9 

1959-60 


4,4T,4l3‘ 

28. 17 

50.3 

1960-6 1 


4,54,858 

3.05 

14.7 

1961-62 


5,00,605 

10.06 

32.7 

1962-63 


5,73,051 

14.47 

49.5 



Source - Education,., Department, Rajasthan 

| 1 . 



! I 

It will he seen from the statistics that the 


i 

ncrease of enrolment of class 

.1 forms, hy and large, 


the hulk of the 

total increase 

in enrolment at the 


primary ptage. 

For instance, in 1955-56, the increase 


of enrolment in 

class I was 70. 

4 per cent of the total 


increase ! at 1 the 

primary stage. 

The corresponding 


percentages in 

1957-58, 1958-59 

and 1959-60 were 52.5, 


54.9 and 50.3 r 

ospectively. 7/h 

at is suggested is that 


the increase in 

.enrolment should take place not only 


in Class I, hut 

in all classes 

and that the increase of 


e nr o lme nt i n t h 

e upper classes 

should he even more than 


that in Class I 

, if wastage is 

to he reduced. 



- 102 

AjmeaaaEaJV 


Wastage and Stagnation at the 
Prim ary Stage 

The statistics of wastage and stagnation at the 
primary |bchool stage prepared separately for boys and 
girls have been enclosed as Annexures IV-a and IV-B, 

Some comments in this, context are relevant . 

2. Wastage and stagnation at the primary school 
stage in Rajasthan i Sj by and large, less than the all- 
India average; This is due to two reasons ; (a) 
qualitatively, the Rajasthan schools are better than 
elsewhere ; i and (b) primary education in Rajasthan has 
hot yet expanded largely enough to reach the poorer and 
lower strata of society where. these evils are most 
conspicuous*# While both these factors have some effect, 
one is inclined to 




attach greater importance to the first, 
on the basis of broad personal observations, 

3, For the cohort which began in 1951-52, the wastage 
was 53 ^er cent for boys and 60,9 per cent for girls. 

For thei cohort which began in 1955-56, the wastage for 
boys was 50.1 p.c. and that for girls was 61.8 p.c. On 
the whole, therefore, wastage seems to have slightly 
decreased in the first Five Year Plan. The cohorts 
beginning, in the second Five Year -Plan show a slight 

. . ' ,1" j 

increase in wastage.- This is due to the rapid expansion 


secured.. The general experience is that, in periods of 
very rapid expansion, there is a temporary increase of 
wastage, 

4. In the third Plan, the wastage is expected to 
decline further. 

5. It may bo stated that, on the whole, wastage and 
stagnation in Rajasthan primary schools, although large, 
are not so heavy as in several States, 





;V'lA en ure IV.— A 

Wastage and stagnation at the primary school stage 

(Boys ) 


Zear 

J Total enrolment- in "-class 

— 



l 

JL...JL 

II 

III-. 

IV 


1950-51 

1, 04 1 939 


— 

- 

- 

1951-52 ■ 

1 96 3 SS5 

1 70,037 - 

( 66 . 8 ) 

f . ' 


- 

1952-53 

1,05,338 

• 72,950 
(76*3) 

59 , 738 
(56. S) 

- 

- 

1953- 64 

1,11,905 

37 , 456 
(32 .6) 

62,538 

(61.6) 

54,742 

(52.2) 

- 

1954-55 

' 1,20,721 

92 ,206 
(82.4) 

62,548 

(59.1) 

56,131 
(58 . ) 

43,372 

(41.3) 

1955-56 

1,67,699 

94,374 

(73.6) 

71,704: 

(64.1) 

59 3 O'oO 
(55.3) 

45 , 500 
(47 . 0 ) 

1956-57 

1? 91 j 739 

1 , 11 , loo 
(6u.3) 

37,073 
(77.1) ■ 

69 , 142" 

. (61 A) 

53,106 
^ O-i . 9 ) 

1957-53 

2 ? 10 ? 044 

1 , 11 , oob 

(61.4) 

91,732 ; 

. . (54.7) 

. -79,343 
(35.7) 

63 , lbB 
(56.4) 

1953-59 

2 3 79 3 140 

j ■ ■ - 

1,34,263 1 

(63.9) 

, 03,239 
(56.8) ;■ 

39 , 115' 
(53.1) 

' 72,060 

. (59.7) 

-1959-50 

- 

1,71,033 1 

■ (61.3) 

,21,435. . 
(57.3) 

1,00,315. . 
(5o.o) 

83 ,651 
' (4S.9) 

13-0-O.1 

-■ ! 

- ... 1 

, 48 , 615 
(53,2) 

1,13,732 

(.54.2) 

91 , 32S 
(50.5) 

'19ul— 62: 

- 



1-, 32,168 
(47.3) 

1,63,679 
" (51.7) 

1962-63 

■ — ■ O'- . - . 

l ■ r 

- 

- 

; 1,18,195 
(42.3) 


I our Co* - .Education department , 
a a j as t An 



- 104 - 

Annexure IV-B 


Wastage 

and stagnation the 

i ([Girls) 

primary school shagt 

- 

?ear 

Total enrolment in 

c las s 




I 

n 

ill 1 

iv 

V 

1950-51 

23,85° 

— 

— 

— 

— mm 

1951-52 

3.0,796 

16,521 

(69.2) 


•7 *m 


1952-53 

25 , 055 

14,694 

(70.7) 

11, 948 
(50.1) 

— 

— 

1953-54 

29,756 

14,752 

(58.9) 

10,044 

(42.3) 

8,693 

(36.43) 

— 

1954-55 

35, 933 

17,7l3 

(59.6) 

11,670 

(46.6) 

10,469 

(50.3) 

9,198 

(38.5) 

19%.5-56 

42,705 

f 

20,399 

(56.8) 

14,876 

(49.7) 

11,423 

(45.6) 

8,122 

(39.1) 

1 S# 6 -57 | 

1 43,276 

22,210 

(52.0) 

16,332 

(45.4) 

12,347 

(41.6) 

9,024 

(36.0) 

1957-58 

50,394 

27,066 

(62.5) 

19,678 

(46.1) 

14,557 

(40.5) 

10 , 204 
(34,3) 

1958-58 

6vj>,244 

32, 988 
(65.5) 

23,852 

(55.1) 

18,349 

(43.0) 

12,495 

(34.8) 

1959-60 

mm 

38,224 

(58.6) 

28,021 

(55.6) 

22,349 

(51.6) 

16,304 

(38.2) 

1960-61 

mm 

- 

34,716 

(53.2) 

25,100 

(49.8) 

18,798 

(43.4) 

1961-62 

- 

mm 

- 

28,546 

(43.8) 

21,073 

(41.8) 

1962-63 



* 


23,259 


(35.6) 


Source! : Education Department, Rajasthan 


105 


| ANiNEXURE V 

tata- h/itt r an s f e r f r o m Primary; to. Middlg Sch ool s 







_ 






J 

Year 

i i 

i ■! 

I .Enroll. 
I Boys ~ 

i 

[lent 

1 

in. 

Class V ' 

1 ~ 

J 

itEnrolmer 
I Boys i 

l 

1 

j 

at In Class VI 

(Rate of trans 
( Di’imary ton 

ifer [f 10;.. 
nid die 


■yirls 

. Total 

; Girls 

: Total] 
] 

(Boys a 

Girls ; 

[’"Total 

1950-51 

24,748 

4,182 

28,930 

i 

j 





1951-58 

33 , 654 

5,606 

39,260 

23,836 

3 , 651 

27,487 

96,3 

87.3 

95.0 

1952-52 

39 , 343 

5,782 

45,125 

31,117 

4,220 

35,337 

92 . 5 

75,3 

90.0 

1953-54 

1 42,636 

6,626 

49,262 

34,0161 

4,090 

38,106 

86.5 

70.7 

34,4 

1954-55 

43,372 

9,198 

52 , 5 /0 

35,240: 

i 

5,141 

40,381 

82.7 

77.6 

82.0 

1955-56 

45,500 

3,122 

53 , 622 

40, 751 | 

4,893 

4 5 ? 644 

93.9 

53.2 

86 .8 

1956-57 

58,106 

l 

9,024 

67,130 

45,328 

5,870 

51,198 

99.6 

72.3 

95.5 

1957~58j 

63,168 

f 

10 , 204 

73,372 

48 , 540 

7 , 306 

55 , 846 

83.5 

81.0 

83,2 

1958-59| 

72,060 

12,495 

84,555 

58,300 

, 

8,124 

66,424 

95.3 

79.6 

90.5 

1959-60: 

83,651 

16,304 

99,955 

68,] iS 

9,791 

77,939 

i 

94.6 

78.4 

92.2 

1960-61 

91,829 

18^798 

110,627 

74,651 

12,702 

i 

87,353 

89.2 

77.9 

87.4 

1961-62: 

108 , 679 

21,073 

129,752 

91,779 

14,787 

306, 566 

99.9 

78.7 

96.3 

1962-63' 

|i 

t 



100 , 789 

16,857 

117 , 646 

92.7 

80.0 

j 

' q 

90.7 


SiSLViyjSa ; Education department, Rajasthan 

j 

lt . B .i. The 'rate of transfer 1 from primary to middle 
schools is defined as 

enrolment in class V 

100 x i 

enrolment in class VI in the following year 




Percentage to (5.2) (6.0) (5.3) (43.4) (18,7) (39.9) (51.4) (75.3). (54.8) 

" total 

1955-56 773 92 - 865 - 3625 434 -4059 •2724 ;. 831 3555 ' ‘ 7122 1357 8479 

Percentage to (10.9) (6.8)- (10.2) (50.9) (32,0) (47.9) (38rS)- (61.2) (41.9) 

total 



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f pay 

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rn.‘t given 

nUHOi 

■.urticaiJ. 

■/ anc" 

a- 

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upon 

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imal on 

neat ion . 







- 110 - 


(<ft) II may -alec 
0,13 owanoes -for'" s 


ly dCsirabl^ to introduce a system of 


peoial t 




•pec of work rather than- -to give. 


a general increase in -'salaries. For instance^ ; if the 
' : -i . doablco-^hif't sytteii is introduced, . the teachers who hav 
• • to , ff 1 tage.'.t^o ; /: Shifts may bo given an extra allowance , 


L<* ' 'go o 


i of ■-.a 


i. ' yd 


of adu it :: ]c • uc at ion a:/ pai t-timo education 

L,.r, 


piled' on at, trio. middr..- school and jjovonda' y, stages. 


may b’d organised .and allowances may be I given to to ache.; a 


i\n- c end acting, the 


be a..- , grammes . Assignments like 


cor loot ion of : homoj-work" is generally neglected. ’.The 
do spa ability of g: : ~ ring allowances for correction'' work 
• (or similar* ‘ GXtyai for k which teach... s a. e called upon 

; ‘ : ' ■ rb l " ' ‘ b i? ■ 

tv do) may also ■ bo' examined . 

(©)• Allowable os,. .may also be introduced for working 1 in 
difficult places. ■: 

•(f)' | In'" erder to at tv a- t tal-nt , a higher start should bo 
•given in jtho scales of . payv|c;r teachers whp have higher 


qualif icr 


ticns than the minimum proscribed (such as 


SeooncV j.;.a Jb |or a First ;Iass). 



Salary structure of the Educ ation Department 
1 In' Rajasthan 


A - Officers of the Education Department 

Name of the post Pay Scales ■ 

1, Director College Education 10 50 - 50-1500 

2, Deputy Directo.r of Education' 550-30-820-EB-30-850-50-950 

(Director at 'e ■ o f • Pr imar y & ■ 

• Secondary Education &j 
College Education} 

3, Deputy Director of; Education 650-50-1250 

(Directorate of Technical (with minimum pay of 3s. 750/-) 

E ducat ion) 

4, Tn spec tor /in sp ec tress of 360- 25- 560 -30 -590 -EB- 

^chool s/A.as.is.tant Director 30-860-900 ( with a minimum 

d'f Education Department. pay of 3s. 435) 

5, Deputy -Inspector /'Inspectress 

of Schools 285-20.^385-25-510-540 • 

6i Su'b'-Deputy Inspector --of _ - 

Schools 110-5-135-10-225 

, (with special pay of 3s.3o/- 
per month) 


B - Pay Scales of. Teachers 

B( I) - -Pay- Scales of Teachers in Schools for General 

Educat ion 


3. No. " " ... Categories 


•1. Hea'dma at er/Hea dm i stress of 

Higher Secondary/Multipurpose 
Schools. 

2. ' Headma-st er/He,a dm i stress of 

H.igh School, and Nursery 
Schools. 

3, Seniof Teacher in Higher 
• .. . -S ec on dar y/Mul t' ipurp o s e 

\ | (Gradel) . 

4. Graduate Teacher (Grade II) in 

H igh/H igh er Sec ondary/Nur s er y. 

i 

5, Teacher Grade III. 


6. Physical -Instructor (gradu- 
ate- with. Diploma/Cert if icate 
in,,. Physical Education), 


Pay -Scales 


275-20-335-25-560-30-650 
(with minimum pay of 3s. 335) 

285-20-385-25-510-540 


225- 10-275- EB- 10-285- 15-43 5- 
25-485 


115- 5- 1 55- 10 -165- EB- 10- 
235-250 (Minimum, of Rs.140/- for 
a trained graduate). 

75-4-9' 5- 5-10 5- EB- 5-130 -EB- 
5-160 (Trained Matric will 
have an initial salary of 
3s. 9 14 D. A:* ) 

115- 5-155- 10-255-EB- 10- 
295-12^-320-335 



B( I) - Pay Scales, of; Teachers in Schools for 
General Education ( C_o_n_t_ i_n_u_e_d) 


7. Unqualified Ph y3 ical . Xn struc t or . 75-4-95-5- 105-EB-5-13U- 

EB-5-160 

8. (i). Teachers in Arts, Crafts ■ 

and Music in High School 

! Classes who is a graduate. 155-5-155- 10-255-EB- 

with training prescribed 10-295-12^.-320-335 

by Government) ;j. 


( ii) Other Teachers in Arts, 

Crafts, Music and Table 75-4-95-5- 105- E3-S- 

Teachers. ; 130-5-160 

9. • School Librarian (Higher 130-5-155-10-23 5-250 

Secondary): • 


10 . 


School Librarian (High 
School) 


90-4- 110- EB- 5-155- 
7^-170 .. 


B( II) - Pay Scales of Teachers in Degree and 
Post graduate Colleges 


SI. No. 


Category 


Pay - Seal es 


1. Principal Post graduate . 650 - 50-1250 ('with minimum pay 

College- , of *3. 750/-p.m. ) 

2. Principal Degree College/ .. 550-30-820- E3-30 - 8 50 - 50 - 9 50 
Heads of D.epar-tnrent"s" of 

"Tost graduat e/Sen ior Lecturers 

3. Lecturers fin -■Postgraduate 285-25- 510-EB-25- 560 -30 - 800 


-an d 


4. 

5. 


rae Colleges 


Dera oh strat or s/ Sh ort hand 
Instructors 

Physical Instructor 


6. Tabla Teacher 


22 5- 10 -275- EB- 10-28 5-r 15-43 5- 
25-435 ’ 

( i) 225- 10-275-EB- 10-285-15- 
435-25-485 • ., 

(ii) 170-10-310-12^-335 

115-5-155-10-255-EB- 1Q-29 5- 
12-y-320-33 5 


B( III).. - Pay Scale of Teachers in Agricultural/ 


.... .. V et ernar 

1., . Pr inc ipal _Agr icultur al/ 
Veterinary College I 

2. Professor Agricultural/ 
Veterinary 

3. Astt. Professors in . 

■ • ’ Agr iculture 


College , 

950 - 50-1400 

550-30-820-EB-30-850-50-950 

360-25- 560-30-590-EB-30-660- 
900 (with minimum pay of 
Rs. 435 p.m. ) 



13(111)- Pay Seals of. Teachers Ln Agricultural/ 

1 V'eternary College ( C__o_n_t_l_n_u_e_d) 


51. No, 


Category 


Pay Scales 


4. Lecturer, in Agricultural/Veteri- 
nary subject/non Agricultural 
subject 

5. Demonstrator 


295- 25- 5 10 -EB- 33 %- 
560 -30 - 800 

225-10-275-EB-10-295-15- 
435-25-485 ’ 


B(IV) - Pay Scales of Teachers in Medical. Colleges 


1. ' Professor in non-cl inicai 

sub ject s - in- Medical College, 

2. ' ‘Reader’s "in' -non-cl inicai; • 

Subjects 

3. Lecturers in Medical 

College in non-cl inicai 
sub j ect s. ■ ■ , 

A.- Chemist in-M.edical College. . 

-5..- PJiarm.cp.cnt ical Chemist-cum- 
L ec tur er in Pharmacol ogy* - 

6. Junior Demonstrator. 

7. Demonstrator. Clinical and 
noh-clinical in Medical 
.College. 


9 50 - 50-1400 (with minimum 
pay of Rs. 10 50 ) . . ; 

550 -30 - 820 - EB-30 - 850 - 50 - 1100 


360-25-560-30-59.0-EB-30- 
860 -900 (with minimum pay of 
Rs. 435) 

. 2 2 5-15- 270 - 20 - 390 - 25-640 
(with minimum pay’ of Rs.-270) 

285-25- 510 -EB-25- 560-30-300 
( with . m in imum pay of Rs,-355) 

225-20-285-25-435-EB-25- 
560 -30 -*800 

275-20-335-25-560-30-650 


B(V) - Pay Scales of Teachers in Ayurved Colleges 


1, Principal. 


2. Pr 


pf essor s. 


3. Lecturers. 


360-25- 560-30-590-EB-30-860- 
900 (with minimum pay of 
Rs, 435) 

225-15-270-20-390-25-640 
(with minimum pay of "’s. 270) 

170 -10 -3 10- 12* -385 


4. Demonstrators. 


130-5-1 55- 10 - 235- 2 50 




B(VI) - Pay. - Scales of Teachers 

in Engineering Colleges 

SI. 

No. _ Cat egor y 

Pay .Scales 

1. 

Pr inc ipal Engineering College 

| ; i . " - 

1650 - 75-1800-100 - 2000 

2. 

professors" 11 ' 

950-50-1400. 

3. 

Readers.., in " " 

650 - 50-1250 . . 

4. 

Asstt. Professors in Engi- 
neering College. 

360-25-560-30-590-EB- 

30-860-900 

(with minimum pay of ’’s. 385) 

5. 

Lecturers and Professors 
in Non-Engineering subjects 
'in -Engineering College; 

... 285-25-510-EB-25-560-30-800 

6. 

'■ A;S 1 1 . workshop Superintendent. 

225- 10-275- EB- 10-285- 15- 
435-25-485. 

7, •• 

Npn-Techn ical Demons- ' ’ v . 

trator Gr. I. . • .' 

225- 10-275- EB- 10-285-15- 
435-25-485. 

■8; 

,> 

• Demon str at or ( T echn ical ) : . 

200 - 10 -3 10 - 12|- 43 5,' 

9. 

Workshop Instructor. 

' 1 i S 

1 70 - 10 -3 10 - 1 2-1-385 

10v 

.. Non -T echn ical Demonstrator 
who is’ graduate 

1 15- 5- 155- 10 -225- EB- 
10-29 5- 12|-3 20 -33 5 

Hi-’- 

-Physical instructor. - ... 

-i l • ' ■■ .. 

2 2 5- 10 - 275- EB- 10 - 28 5- 1 5- 
435-25-485 


• - B(V II) - Pay Scales of Teachers in Polytechnic 
■' - • Schools ' : - 

1 . 

Principal Polytechnics 

650 - 50-1250 (with minimum 


pay of 3s. 750) 


2. Heads of Departments in 550-30 - 820-EB‘-30-850-50- 

Pplytechnics 1100 (with minimum pay of 

. 3s, 760 ) 

3. Lecturers, in Engineering . 360-25-560-30-590-EB-30- 

subjects in Polytechnics. 860 -900 (with minimum pay 

’ . of 3s. 385) 

4. Workshop Superintendent ' n » 

in Polytechnics •: 


5. 

6 *. 


7. 


Principal Technical Training 
, Gen t re 


^Asstt. Workshop Superintendent 
in ' Polyt echn ics 


285-25- 510-EB-25- 560-30- 
800 (with minimum pay of 
3s. 335) 

225- 10-2 75- EB- 10 - 285- 1 5- 
435-25-485 


Non- 1 echn ic a i" Lectviro . r ^ 
Polytechnics. 


225- 10-275- EB-10-285-15- 
.435-25-485 


Contd. . . . p-5 



B(VII) -'Pay Seales of Teachers in. Po.lytechn ic School: 
I (Continued) 


31.. -Nq. ,, 


Category 


Pay Scales 


1 ; ; — 

8. Instructor in Polytechnics. 200-l(i-3l0-12i--435 

9, Drawing and Crafts instructor. 1 15-5-1 55- 10-2 55-EB- 10 -29 5 - 

.. ... ; 12^-320-335. 

' i' ’ ' ' 

10. Non-techn ical Demonstrator " " " 

who is graduate 

11. Instructor(Gmduat'e in Art 

or Science). 


(minimum Is. 135). 


12. Non-techn ical Instructor who 75- 4-9 5- 5- 10 5- EB- 5- 130 -. 
is not a graduate. EB-5-160 


B(VIII) » Pay Scales of Teachers in Teachers 
T: lining Colleges 


1, Principal Teachers Train- 
ing College 


550-30-820-EB-30 - 850- 
50-9 50 


2 , 

3. 


Professors and Lecturers in 
TrajLnmg College 


Arts Master, Craft Master 
and Music Teacher in Train 
ing College. 


285-25- 510-EB-25- 560- 
30 - 800 

1 70 - 10-310 - 1S&-38 5 


4. Physical; Instructor in . 170-10-3l0-12|--335 

Training! College. 


B( DC) j Pay iScales of Teachers in Teachers 
Training Schools 

1. Head Mast er/Head M istr ess 285-20-385-25-510-540, 
in Training Schools 


2. Teachers in Training 
School s . 

3-. .Physical Instructor in 
'Training | Schools 

4, Arts & Drawing, drafts & 
Weaving Instructor. 

5, Teachers Grade II 


6, Music Teacher 


170-10-310-12-1-335. 


170-10-310-12^-335 


170- 10-3 10-12-1-385 


115-5-155-10 -165- EB- 
10-235-250 


170-10-310-12^-385 



- 11 . 6 - 

B(X) • Pay Scales of Teachers in Physical 
Education College 


SlvNo, Category 


1. Principal Physical Education 
College. 

2 . Vice-Principal 'Physical 
Education College 

3. Lecturers Physical Education 

College ' • 

,4. Junior Lecturers Physical 
Education College' . 


Pay Scales 


550 -30 - 820-EB-30 - 850 - 50 - 9 50 

3 60 - 2 5- 560 - 30 - 590 -EB- 30- 
860-900 (with in in imum pay 
of 9s. 43 5) 

225-15-270-20-390-25-640- 
(with minimum Pay of 
Rs.270) 

170-10-310-12^-335 


B( XI) - Pay Scales of Sanskrit Teachers 


Categories Pay Scales 


1. Principal Sanskrit College of 550 -30 - 820 -EB- 8 50 - 50 - 9 50 
Acharya Standard. 

2, Professor Sanskrit Colleges of 

Acharya Standard. 285-25-510-EB-25-560-30-800 


3. Pr inc ipal| San skr it Colleges 
of Spa gtrii. Standard/Upadhyaya 
• standard, ? 

f 


4, Lecturer 'in . Sanskrit College 
of Sha.str i standard in Modern 
Subjects at Sanskrit College. 


5. Sanskrit Teacher in ■ Pathshalas 
and Pathshala .Sections of 
Sanskrit Colleges-Ppavesh ika 
passed and Upadhyaya. 


285-20-3.85-25-510-540 


225-10 - 275-EB- io-285- 
15-43 5-25-485. . 


' 7 5- 4 -9 5- 5- 10 5- EB- 5- 1 60 . 

0,91 initial start for 
teacher who is upadhyaya 
with three years teachinog 
experience or trained Metric). 


6. ihastri teacher in Praveshika 115-5-155- 10-165-E. B, -10- 
and purna praveshika Sections 235-250 
of Sanskirt College, and in 

Sanskirt P'athshala. - -("In itial start of 9s. 140 for 

Acharya and Shastri having 
7 years experience of 
teaching praveshika) 



nn n u a 1 y * -*♦ *». 


Expansion of Training Institutions for 


E lem ent ar y To ac hor 


It is easy to establish that the existing facilities 
for the training of elementary teachers in ha j as than v/iil 
have to be |ncrease(jL several-fold, l'he detailed calculation 
for this purpose are given below s- 

( 1 ) The enrolment at the primary stage will rise 
from 18.6 lakhs in 1965-66 to 50 lakhs in 1980-31, This 
implies an increase of 31.4 lakhs in a period of 15 years 
or 2.1 lakhs per year ; on an average, at 45 pupils per 
teacher, the primary schools alone will need 4,700 teachers 
per year for 1 additional enrolment,. 


( 2 ) In the middle schools, the enrolment will rise 
from 4 lakhs in 1965-66 to 21 lakhs in 1980-31. About 

13 lakhs, out of this would be on a full-time basis and for 
the remaining Enrolment of 3 lakhs in part-time education, 
no additional teachers would be needed. At 30 pupils per 
teacher,. the middle schools will, therefore, need 3100 
teachers per year for additional enrolment. 

( 3 ) At ! the end the third Five Year Plan, the 
total! number of teachers; ‘in service in elementary school;.. 


will be. 60,000. The number of teachers required for 

replacement in this cadre (at about 3 per cent per 

•■ ! , \ | ■ 

year) Is 'I 860 , 


(4) Among the new teachers ■ appointed during this 
period, there wiil be some wastage owing to deaths, 
resignations 1 , etc. This may be -taken at one per cent 


per year,: The additional teachers required for this 
purpose would be 780. 

/The total number, of additional teachers required 
per year for elementary schools during the next three 
Five Year Plans would thus be 10,330. If this number 



of teachers is to be produced in a course of two years, 
after allowing for wastage of about 10 per cent, we may 
need aoout 23000 seats in training institutions for 
elementary teachers, as against 3,000 seats only which 
we have at present, i a provision for about 15,000 
additional seats would, therefore, have to b e made as 
early as possible, 

c " * In addition, t.o these, seats required for pre-service 
training, we will also have to make provision for in-service 
training of teachers , £ or this purpose, we may assume that 

ovoj.y teacher will get an in-service education of two 
m maths in a period of five yc rs of service. This will 
imply that ;the provision of seats for in-service education 
in training institutions should bo of the order of 4 per cent 


of the t; 


0"t til 


cadre of elementary teachers. In 1965-66, 
therefore , 'the number of seats required for in-service 
education would be about 2,400 and, in 1980-81 this 
number would risje to 6,800. 

3. For planning this expansion, the general principals 
recommended by the Study Group on the Training of Elementary 
Teachers in India may be broadly kept in view. For 
convenience of reference, they may be summarised as 
follows 

(1) Bigger training institutions are more efficient 

than the smaller ones. The minimum size of a training 

■ . !j 

institution should, therefore, be 200 and wherever 
possible, it may' also be raised to 300. 

(2) The district should be taken as a unit for planning 
the location tf>f training institutions; and, by and large, 
it should be a policy to train the teachers required 


in a district 


within the ; district itself. This is 


specially necessary for women teachers. 



-119- 

It may be desirable. 


( 3 ) 


as a matter of long-range 


policy, to establish one training institution in each 
district with the solo purpose of providing in-sorvice 


education to elementary teachers , 


4, The total if umber of seats needed for the training 

institutions for elementary toachars, as stated above, 
is about 23,000. The manner in which these would bo 
distributed amongst the different districts of the 

i 

State shown in the following table 


Existing and proposed Number of Scats in 
Training Institutions for Elementary Teachers 


31. District 
No. 

Total Popula- 
tion accord- 
ing to 1961 
Census 

(in thousands) 

N umb or of 
Existing 
Ins t it u- 
tions 

Scats in 
Existing 
Training 
Insti- 
t ut i ons 

No. of Boats 
in Training 
Inst it ut ions 
required 
according to 
Plan 

Addition 
3 o at 3 
roquirec 

1 . Ajmer 

976 

7 

840 

1114 

274 

2 . A lwar 

1090 

2 

240 

1245 

1005 

3, Bharat pur 

1150 : 

•5 

600 

1313 

713 

4. Jaipur 

1902 

12 

1440 

2171 

731 

5. Jhunjhunu 

720 

6 

720 

821 

101 

6 . S ikar 

820 

- 

- 

936 

936 

7. Sawaimadhopur 944 

3 

360 

1077 

717 

3, Tonk 

498 

3 

360 

569 

209 

9, Bikaner 

445 

2 

240 

509 

269 

10, Ghuru 

659 

2 

240 

752 

512 

11. Ganganagar 1037 

3 

360 

1184 

824 

12. 3 arm or 

650 

] 

120 

742 

62 2 

13. Ja is aimer 

140 

- 

- 

161 

161 

14, Jodhpur 

886 

4 

480 

10 18 

538 

15, Jalorc 

547 

1 

120 

624 

504 

IS, Nagaur 

935 

1 

120 

1072 

952 

17. Pali 

806 

1 

120 

920 

800 

13. Birohi 

I 352 

1 

120 

402 

282 

19. Kota 

= f 848 

2 

240 

969 

729 

20. Bundi 

■ 338 

1 

120 

386 

2bb 

21. Jhalawar 

491 

1 

120 

561 

441 

22* Banswara 

475 

1 

120 

525 

405 

23; Bhilwara 

866 

3 

360 

988 

628 

24. Chittorgarh 748 

1 

120 

853 

733 

25, Dungarpur 

407 

1 

120 

465 

345 

26. Udaipur 

1427 

5 

600 

1629 

1029 

TOTAL 

* 

20,156 

69 

8,280 

2 3,000 

14,720 



Annexure IX 


P rogrammes for qualitati ve improvement of 
Elementary" Educa t ion " C oT her' than those 
concerned w ith teacher s!" 

Extracts from the Report of the Rajasthan State 
Primary Education Commit<|~e, 1964. 

1 • Improvem e nt of Curricu l a and Te aching methods with 
Special Reference to the Pro blems of Basic Educat ion; It is 
gener ^iiy agreed on all hands that the' traditional type of 
elementary education, which was predorai nently academic in 
character and .bookish in content, will not meet the ■ require- 
ments of the modern society we desire to create in India. The 
bulk of the people will have to work wi«th their hands to 
produce wealth:; and educated people should really be able to 
work better with their hands and to produce more wealth. 

This is what happens in all the advanced countries of the 
best. But in India, owing to our peculiar traditions, an 
educated man is not expected to work with his hands and the 

more educated he is, If he less inclined is he to do manual 

! ! 

labour. In such a society, whore the general ethos is against 

manual labour, the spread of education can only result in a 

decrease of productivity. This is a great danger to society 

S' 

as a whole and it was to prevent such a development that 
Hahatma Gandhi put forward his scheme of basic education. b 
believe that the fundamental principle underlying the scheme, 
viz., that work is noble and dignified and that men have to be 
educated to work better and more efficiently with their hands, 
is fundamentally sound. The reform of elementary education 
in the next fifteen years will have to be broadly organised 
on the basis of this principle. 

2. 'll iv is it that the scheme of basic education has not 

worked well in spite of the essential soundness of its 
principles and in spite of the support it has received so far 
from the Central and the State- Governments? How can we modify 
the system so as to make it more practical and adaptable? 



I’iitse arc important problems and our rc comae nd at i o ns regard! nr 
them arc as f olio vvs ; — ; 

(l) It vvao a mistake to begin the scheme' at the primal; 
stage.- where the numbers involved are extremely large and arc 
increasing annually at., a. frightening rate. The number of 
teachers required at thi*s stage is also very largo and it is 
n^xt to impossible to get primary teachers of the right calibre 
in adequate numbers.' ’.That should really have been done at this 
stago is to proscribe a comparatively easier programme of hand- 
v;ork or simple crafts. But this was not done and the targets 
adopted were set so high that they could not be reached. 

Bor i.un a tcly , thoise defects have been remedied and the program. ,.e 
of ' orient £jti on yto basic pattern' has been formulated recently., 
thanlvs to the imaginative approach of Shri- G . Ramachandran. 

Und^-r this programme, all good' elements .'of basic education 
(except craft) have Kon introduced in primary schools and hand- 
•/erk or simple crafts have boon added. 7c strongly support 
this programme and recommend that it should be adopted 
universally at the primary stage. 

(2) It is our general experience that children become averse 

to manual work, net at the primary stage, but at the middle 
school and secondary stages or in the age-group 11 - 17 . 7c, 

therefore, f«el that the right stage where these tendencies 

to denigrate work are to be 'checked is the age-group 11-17. It 
is, therefore , necessary to introduce a craft on a compulsory 
oasis in all middle schools and even in all secondary schools 
(m classes. IX anh X). If this can be done, the- main 
objective of the scheme of basic education would be realised. 

(3) It has been assumed that every primary teacher can else 
teach craft. This is : not possible except in the case of a f-n 
gifted individuals. 7/hereas wmy teqeher can teach simple ban: 
work at the primary stage, not everyone is qualified or gifted 
to teach the high level of craft "skill 1 which is needed at the 



-122 ~ 


middle scho'l or secondary stages. "1o , therefore, f~el t,h :f 
it is n-cojssary to appoint specially trained teachers cl 
craflf ah.d It o supply good tools and equipment (and also raw 
materials) if the teaching craft is to be done at an 


appripriate level' of efficiency. For several years to cer..<- , 
it will be possible to secure these conditions in middle 
and secondary schools, but not in primary schools. Moreover, 
at these stages, the children are older and able to work... 
better. The wastage involved is consequently much less. 

(l) ’Ve also feel that too much is made of the concept 


of correlation, and that toe much emphasis is placed on the 
introduction of spinning and weaving as a craft. ’Vo thi.nl: 

that this emphasis ojn correlation should, therefore, have to 

1 " i - 

b e ... ab and 0 ne d ' and .that greater emphasis should be placed on 
the teaching' of. agriculture. 

3y As we have stated above, the main task before us is to 

' ■ : \ 

change the general ethos of our society where education is 

' ! / ’/ h - | 

considered tc be antithetical to manual work and where an 
educated person refuses .. to. work with his hand's. .This 


attitude "cannot be changed at. all by working at the primary 
stage only. In fact, social attitudes are set, not in 
elementary schools, but 'in the universities and then they 


get copied all. down the line. The attempt to change the 
social ethos, .therefore, would have tc be made essentially 
at the university stage. ’7c, therefore, feel that a good 
deal pf canring, social service and manual work should be 
introduced at the university stage also. This will change 
the attitudes of the college students and the college 
teachers. In its turn, _t will have the effect of changing; 
the attitudes of the students of secondary schools and 


teachers.. Th^. thread may then be easily picked, up in mm 
pri|mary..jstage without any difficulty. 

To s.um up, our recommendations for the adoption of the 


4 . " 



123- 


schmmc of basic education would bo the following 

(l) At the primary stage- (age-group 6— 1 1 ) , there should be 
no attempt to introduce the to aching of a craft and to ciaphasi zo 
its teaching. In classes I and II, wo need net attempt anything 
moro than the introduction of activities. This would be almost 
inescapable in view of ouif decision to adopt the double-shift 
system in those two classes on financial grounds. In class III 
t° - V, all that we should attempt is the introduction of hand 
work and simple crafts like kitchen gardening. In fact, we 
would sun} up the education! at the primary stag 1 - as including 
(i) a thorough inculcation of the basic tools of learning — 
reading, writing and arithmetic; (ii).thoi development of 
proper habits, an education in citizenship and a programme of 
general information related to th. social and physical environ- 
ments of the child; (iii) plenty cf activities, curricular and 
co-curricular ; (iv) hand-work or kitchen-gardening; and (v) a 
much greater emphasis on artistic and aesthetic activities such 
as painting, music and dancing than what is provided at 
present. In our opinion, such a programme will be all that 


is necessary to provide the necessary skill in the manipulation 
of fingers and hands and to lay the foundation cf a programme 
of craft education proper which is. tc follow at a lat^r stage. 

(2) In tho middle and the secondary schools (from- Class VI 
0 Claso k) , thy learning cf a craft should be made compulsory. 

At this stage. t|c numbers to be dealt with ar^ small. It 
would, therefore, be possible to appoint special teachers for 
crafts, to provide the necessary equipment, -to exorcise 
proper supervision 1 and to see that the t, aching, and learning 
0f> tl10 crd ^" t i s & one efficiently. Tim wastage^ can bo kept tc 
the . .mni mum at this stage and productivity would also be vmw 
high. Th.ro is no doubt that the proper teaching, of a craft 
at this stag*, would certainly bring in return something more than 
raw material and the maintenance c f equipment (including 

depreciation). 




(3) At the university stage also, a good deal cf comping 
should be introduced in which students should be required 

I * 

tc dp annual and productive work. This would continue to 
foster attitudes which were, built up earlier at the middle 

and secondary stages. 

' ! 

5. Teaching of Science ; Another subject of the curriculum 
which needs special attention is the teaching cf science. 
T hc revolution which we want to introduce in. India in tlm 
social and economic spheres can only bo possible through 
the development of science, and technology. We must, there- 
fore strive cur best to strengthen the teaching cf science 
at all stages and this must bo • a top priority programme 
for the next fifteen years. 

6. It has to be remyrnbe-red that the teaching of science : 
does not merely imply the ,iving of. information regarding 
scientific matters. It is net also enough tc t e ach a ■ f .wv 
skills in scientific, matters such as the '.-performance cf 
prescribe dj; experiue nts. : What- is needed is to build up- thc 
natural curiosity of children, and make .them, take i nterest I 
natural and social phenomena around them. It is also ' 
essential to jbuild up scientific attitudes which are 
rational, empirical and secular.. These fundamental 
objectives of science education will have tc be- kc pt in- 
view in framing curricula and adopting teaching methods : 
fer elementary schools. 

7. In order to strengthen the teaching of science at the • 

the 

elementary stage, ^first requisite is to prepare properly 
qualified teachers of science. Eauipment is necessary, 

f ; 

but is not thp first jr cquis.it e. Given a good to ach or, he 
can put across a good programme of teaching science wit-: 
such simple materials as arc locally available. In order 
to keep thjj costs dewn, therefore, it is necessary to j 

concentrate on the training of teachers cf science for thef 



- t— ~xxo- 

elementary stage. 

8. In this connection, we would like to make a rather 
unorthodox and radical recommendation. At' present, the 
teaching of different subjects is not organised on a subject- 
wise basis at the - elementary stage, i.c . , either at the primer 
or at the e.id die. school stages. '7e do realise that it is not 
possible (nor even necessary) to teach the curricula according 
to subjects at the primary stag-.. But wc sec no reason why 
the teaching at the middle school stage should not be done 
according to the subjects. In fact, there is every advantage 
to be gained by | ; doing so. 

9. If thie thesis is- to be- accepted, it follows that cur 
pro^r^mme of training teachers fci middle schools will also 
have to be revisodi At the moment, wc have a coeimon programme 
for training teachers for primary as well as middle schools. 

In f utur w , it may be better to have a general programme of 
training (cf the type we have at present) for primary teachers 
only and to train the. teachers for middle schools specifically 
for Certain subjects as is now done for secondary schools. 
-Bvcry teache-r who wants to teach in a middle school should- be 
required to specialise in two (or at the mos t, in thr-c) 
subjects included in the curriculum, just as .Very Secondary 
teacher is required to specialise in two subjects at present. 
This mil^ ...aloe it possible to give him a bettor knowledge of 
the subject and also a better mast.ry ever the teaching 
techniques! If such a, system can be adopted, it will be 

possible to train much better teachers for middle schools than 
v/e have at present. , 

10. hven if this system cannot be adopted for all subjects 
immediately, W e might make a beginning with teachers of 
-nglish, o ci. nee and Craft. These are the three most difficult 
subjects in the middle school curriculum which need our 



-1:16- 


attention. ':!y ‘-ay, th'.r-fcm, start by setting aside 
c m ti ,.ii iii ng i nsti tu tic n i n e ach cl i stri ct whi ch wi 11 
specialise in preparing teachers for English and Scimxc.. , 
c-.no . c iiC i. ustituti o n in every Division which will prepare 
te - tellers fer crafts. The programme should be i ntensiva 
and highly qualitative; and an at leapt should b- made to 
post aj; least one such specialised subject trained teacher 

i . 

in English and Science .and one specialised craft teacher 
in every middle school. This will take care of the toachin 
cf >nglish, Science and Crafts at that school. As soon 
as conditions become favourable, .core such teachers may be 
posted tc each middle school. ‘ 


11* Programmes ex' Student Aid and Welfare ; This program..; 

has three aspects: (a) free supply _T textbooks and Spiting 
materials; (b) School heals; anu (e) School Uniforms. 

(a) Free Supply of Textbooks and Writing ilatsr ials : 

One very important programme to increase the enrolment of 
children in schools is tc make a free supply of textbooks and. 
writing materials. This will help in improving standards and. 
in reducing wastage. Although the programme may be regarded , 
as optional in the .early stages of the envelopment cf primacy 
education, it becomes inescapable when the last 30 per cent 

of the 'children who come from the poorest classes of the 

! 

community are being enrolled* In the opinion of the Committee, 
this stage would be reached in Pvajasthan in the Fourth Five 
Year Plan. 


The Committee would, therefore, recommend that 
P* ovision should be nano go prov iclc xroo b- oks, slates a.nd 
other writing materials te ail children in primary schools. 

The expenditure on this p, e 0 rammc can be economised if these 
books and writing materials are kept In schools in the custody 
of the teachers and made available tc the children durin-- sc hex 



hours. Such a system has been triad successfully in sene 
countries outside India, In view ..£' gut great shortages 
cf paper supply and funds, there is no reason \;hy \jc s!v aid 
not also try it on a large- sc (?tlO * 1 L i-lcl y also on p o ii r o o d 

out tnat this p.-.'^posal doss not meEm mat no child will 
have tucks or writing materials at home. These parents 
oho, can afford this expenditure and who want their 
childr an tc do hone werk, can certainly buy textbooks curd 
writing materials at their own cost, 

(b)- School lie a is ; Rajasthan has already 
started, with tno help of CARE, a pr opr a me of providing 
milk no. .school children* At -pro sent, "'about one million 
- chiiu_ en ai o v .... c undoj. t ho p: egramme of nrciday moais 
-which is ^operated by the Development Department, v/e 
. a 3-- s - ■aJ»a© - should be expanded tc the 

extent possible in the Fourth Plan. The content cf the 
meal should also be enx ichoa by the add. it .ion or some food, 
cither collected locally or received from abroad through 
fx ^ift'S, fhrs is a pr ogramme in which tns local 
community has to bo interested and steps to that end 
should be taken r ight from now. The ultimate objective 
should be to provide a school meal a day to every child. 
Even if this were not possible, we should attempt to 
Pj. ovide a school meal xor at least all tno poor and n.-mly 
children (who would be about 30 per cent of the total 
enrolment) , • ■ ■ - ■ 1 ' 

' (c) -Sc hoal Un iforms ; It is also necessary tc 

encourage the adoption' of school uniforms at the primary 

! 

and. .uiddl^ school stages. The State should, therefore, 
.proscribe a very simple uniform which would be within the 
competence of mesh parents* For the ,childron of poor 
pcij.Gn.tSj some 1 sort cf a subsidy will have to be piven to 



enable them to have school uniforms, The Committe-. f 
that a program^ to this :;nd should be started .in the 


fourth 

12 ♦ Producti on of Educational Literature ; The in-service 
braining of teacher s oh.. ugh correspondence education or 
-ohe aot erupts by tea ..hers at so if- ir.ipr overrent w ill succeed 
^nly if tuc.'v is' a good coal of literature available in 
Hindi, which the cloruojyc-ary teachers can use to improve 
ti.wii. ^oiupot enc o « Noc muon literature of this type is 
available at present. .One of the main functions of the 
Stato Institute of Education is to produce this literature 
and wo r |Commond that this pr ugramuo should be highlighted 


in jhe: Fdui’th' Five Yoar plan, if a large number of books 
on uiiferent aspects of education can be prepared in 
Hindi and put on' the market, they will be available, not 
only to the: elemeht'ary teachers, but oven to those members 
of tne public and office-bearers of the Panchayati R'aj 
in s t it ut ion s w ho ■ ■■ ar e . int o.ested an e due at icn . Such 
literature will, ■■ them fore, greatly assist to raise the 

standards of education all round, 

13 » A dopt ion _ o i. New _ Strategy Of Development : The two 
reocmmuiidat ion-s made, above, viz., the emphasis on better 
teaching of compulsory crafts at the middle school stage 
and the improvement of the teach iuig of English, Science anc 
craft in the- middle schools lead us to a further suggestion 
on, which we lay great emphasis. What we' want to recommend 
isjtno adoption.. of .a now strategy in the qualitative 
development of .elementary education. At present, classes 
I-VIII are regarded as one unit of elementary or basic 

i 

education, although it is divided into two sub-units of the 
p* ima,. y and nicidlo school stages. Consequent ly, cur p: o pro 



1 qualitative imp., ov -mr: t a._ . .^ ... rurally drawn up i'o: 
oicmcntar y education as a whole. The r.ia in difficulty in 
such an approach is tho large numbers we have to fact ,.t 
th^. primary stage, Qur funds for qualitative impr ov _m.ni t 
e limajtod; and wren applied to the primary stage, thev 
^ot spread sc- bn inly that hardly any tangible result is 
obtained. Instead, we should new emphasize tho inpo rvcr.ie - 
of quality pf tho middle stage in tho fourth Five Year- 
Plan. Our reasons for this suggestion arc given bclcw : - 

(1) The- first and the foremost reason has been 
mentioned already: the largo numbers we have to face at 

-■-the primary stage and for which we have no resources, 

(2) , The numbers involved at the middle school 
stage are still snarl and manageable. Tho number of cod 
teachers that we neod at this stage will not be very 
large and can also bo obtained. 

. (3) It the pr imary st.age,. there is, a good deal of 
wastage*- Of every 100 children that enter class I, only 
about 35 reach class V. It is true that we have to make 
an j of fort to reduce this wastage, but that will take a 
long time to succeed* In the meanwhile, a large part of 
the funds invested in the improvement of primary education 
will just bo wasted. At the middle school stage, on the 
other hand, the wastage is extremely small. Consequently, 
whatever improvement is effected at tho middle school st,^ 
will readily climb up to tho secondary stage, and thence 
tot he un iv ar s ity . 

(4) t/hat is needed to improve our education is a 
‘ pinccr • movement which would concentrate on the qualitati 
improvement of middle schools to throw good studios 
simultaneously concentrate on the. development of the post- 
exuate stage tc throw down good teachers* This is the 



only strategy which can bo adopted, 'hi the meagre resoimens 

■ *i : * / . 

that arc nee available, 

t ~ .' r, '"tWaj r.themafer 0, strongly r ccomhond that, in th„ 
fv.urth 'Plan, ah-.ihtensive -of fm/tr should be '.made to impr^v- 
the middle /schools pY/hoe\ov or .possible -.by providing good 
build inge : , and equi ipmont ; :tc ft he so hast it ut ions , by pi ev id in 
bOQd; sta|fYiby::pi'o.yiclhi- li-servlqs. traliing/W the 
. hah dnidiat.eK s o and . . a s s 1st ant it . 2 ac hor.s . 'an d -'.by . ; pro. v. id ing a 

1 Wbi 0 / ri /do h, i.s is.idono.,, : thc ifc^graramc of 
; qualitative improvement can lx ; exton doe] tq.pr.lnary schools 
in. the f ifth Plan, , 


Evopipin t;nc .fourth Plan "itself , vie can take one 

..will,.bo. ; situated in the 
midst of , abp.ut,5-10 -primary schools. All ;th<hs.o schools 
co-uld 4 .be j iht'y''sa i gso up 1 w ith the middle., sc hool at th _. 
Centre (what we ■ have- said' hero of middle schools will also 
apply to.;- secondary schools which have middle school 
’ departments/)'. 5 : For;- all the so schools,., -wo might set up a 

i 

committee abnsistinjjj cf Headmasters ,cf the; '.Middle School 
as C ha :L; man ; c.tnd the Headmasters of 1 all the 'primary schools 
"ntich hour hood : as members,. This Committee should be 
responsible,' under ■ the ; guidance. of ..the Inspecting | 
Officer-, _ for , tho 'qualitat iv 0 improvement' of ..all the schc _is 
in the group, ■ Such a programme w ill immediately make it 
possible t.o iadiato the qualitative improvemont built into 
bne middle schools co the primary, schools round-about. 


14 * ; State In stitute, of Education ; & State Institute of 
no.ucation has been established in Rajasthan this year, Th; 
primary aim cf , this .Institute is to improve standards in 
elementary .education. Its functions are: ( 1 ) to -ore vide 
in-service training to inspecting officers; (2) to provide 



-131- 


in service .training for teacher - educator s; (3) to cone' act 
re speech ant oxpur imonts; (4) to pi educe educational 
'literature necessary for touchers one. students; unci 
(5) tc provide extension s -.vices to tr a in in j last it..,, t s 

and elementary schools* V/e attach very gr eat importance 
to the State Institutes of Education. v/e. are also given 
to under stand that these are proposed to., bo developed in 
a big way in the Fourth Plan. V/e r ocomond' that full 
scope should be given tc the development of the State 
■•institute of Education in Rajasthan and that it should be j 
staffed by the best of fleer s from the Education Department . ‘ 
The future qualitative development of elementary 
education will depend essentially on a leadership in 
ideas; and tjjiiSj leadership can only cone from-, the' State 
■Institute of Education, . .. 

• 15 • . Iggr^ving cf 'Bullet. ;s* Playgrounds and Sc ho u I- 

'■ Farms ; The problem of buildings is of very great 
importance. . It will also involve a very large expenditure. 
In order to solve it satisfactorily, we recommend that 
a non- lap sable fund should be created at the -State level 
for construction of elementary school buildings. Every 
year, such amounts as the State Government can soare for 
building purposes, should b: ear r.^rlced and credited i:vcc 
■the fund| and from its balances, grants- in-aid, according 
to |ules| should be made available to local communities 
for construction of school buildings. 

The- State will have to share the largc-r 
responsibility of expansion and qualitative improvement, 
especially with regard. to the salaries and allowances, 
oid-ago benefits and traming of teachers. It is, t her of..: 0 , 



-132 - 


in the fitness of things that the primary responsibility 
I’-" school build ins s should bo taken by the local community 
rather' than by the State, The ,;State should provide so;..m 
Si' ant- in -a id 5 but this would bo h&ljf, cr even less than 
half in post ccr.ir.iun it io s » It is only in Adivasi or such 
ether oxtr onely pc Cl 1 and backward areas that the State 
should assume a proper tionately larger responsibility 
for construction of buildings. 

It may be desirable to permit the local. 


communities (village panchayats) .to levy a special tax, 
for a specified period, for construction of school 
buildings.' For instance, a village may need a school 
building costing To. 5,000, Let us further assume that 
uLo lane, i vV vri'U.Q in oh as village is lb, 2,500, The 


villagers should then have the option to t£Uf, themselves 
in such a way that ^very person will pay' twice the amount 
cf land revenue for the construction of the school 
buildings, in., one or more instalments, in a period of 
one to tip oo years. If' such a decision is taken, all 
the amount required fed the school buildings would be 
collected'' in a period of not more than throe years; and, 
as soon as tjiis is demo, the tax would automatically come 
to an end, This method of compulsory tax for short periods 
has an 'advantage ever the present system of voluntary' 
collections in so far as it compels everyone to pay his 
share. We, .therefore, r go emu end that this should be 
given a fair trial. 


• An effort has 'to be made to reduce the cost 
of buildings. Even the economy of one rupee per sq.ft, 
will ultimately lead to a saving of crcres of rupees, it 


is, therefore, recommended that the State should 


set up 



-133- 

a' unit for conduct ing research in reducing the cost ^f 
school buildings should be created at the app.u opr iatc. 

:t should work in class collaboration with the. 
"office of tiie Director of Public Instruction., jyiy amount 
spent on thp establishment of this unit would be nor o than 
repaid by the resulting Gcnriomy in. expenditure on building. 



We have rec emended elsewhere that agr iculturc 
should be introduced as a craft in all middle schools, or 
at least in as many middle schools as possible, For this 
purpose it is necessary to have adequate land attached to 
the middle schools. From this point of view it may be 
desirable to organise a large- seal., programme, in this 
context, we may refejr to a programme, which was undertaken 
some years' ago in Uttar Pradesh. The then chief iiinister 
of the State, late Shr i Gov ind Balia bh Pant, made an appeal 
. *' 01 ’ donation of land and money for middle .schools, and in j 
.a sjhort period, donations of about 20,000 acres ef land j 

,and about; 32 lakhs of rupees were raised. With the help 
of this initial donation, farms have 'been attached tc mor e 
than 3,000 middle schools and specially trained teachers 
i,n agriculture, pave bom appointed. The scheme is working 
v or y well ■ ; * • 

. . Wo strongly recommend that an effort on 

similar lines should also bo made in Rajasthan,- 

The pr o v i s ion of pi a.ygr ounds is v er y . ■ imper t ant . 

It she u la be made a responsibility, of the local communities 


in r ui al and -urban a* 1 eas oo prev-ide ,cacli school with an 
adequate playground, tc develop it properly and to fence 
io on all sides. Token grants from State funds ray bo 
made available for the purpose; but, by and large, this 



show l ; d be ; regarded as a responsibility of the community. 
16, Provision of Ad eg gate Equipment : \J c have already 
refer rod to. .[the -paucity of • equipment in nest of the 
elementary schools and steps have, therefore, to be 
taken- urgently to provide the essential equipment to 
all the elementary schools • In this connection, w c make 
the following recommendations 

(1) When craft is compulsorily introduced in 
middle and secondary schools throughout the State, one 
of the • programmes to be undertaken should bo to prepare 
equipment needed forj schools* If this can bo done, a 
double purpose would be served: (I) the children we uld 
be given instruction in a useful craft; and (ii) the 
schools will also be provided- with 'some 1 ' of "the equipment 
needed at cost price, 

(2) A drive for' school inprevement on the lines 
of the programme organised in Madras State should be 
developed in.Rajastha.n also. Hero, each inspecting 
officer -is expected to organise a school improvement 
■conference, ■•■'once a. year, in his boat. The decision is 
t a kon sufficiently in advance and each school in the 
boat then prepares a complete list cf the equipment which 
it has and the additional equipment and facilities which 
it needs. After the lists arc prepared, an intensive 
propaganda is organised in all the villages of the beat 
and the people are requested to donate, cither in cash 

or in kind, for equipping the schools better, A largo 
number of donations are generally received before the day 
of the conference. On the day of the conference itself, 
wh^.ch ! is presided over by some important person, the list 
of donations already received arc announced and generally 



O p O ta • 


omo x ur tlier donut n s or o also received on the 
The confer ones is followed up by intensive propaganda 
campaign to realise, the. promises made and tc develop 
tno school [further* When a suitable occo.sicn arises, 
the conference is repeated. The Madras State has been 
able tv collect about As, S.croros t lire ugh such confer ere re 
dur ing tlfie last five years. \Ic feel that this is a pc,,d 
noveiaent which has, to bo adopted in all parts of India, 
Rajpsthan nay we'll take steps to organise it - with effect 
frer.i next yep? ancl keep it up throughout the Fourth 
Five Year Plan, 

* o la s s lx ic a. o ior. of Schools . In order to measure 

the progress that it ispna.de in improving the quality of 
elementary schools, we suggest that all the elementary 
schools _ should be classified -...very year, on a five-point 
scale - A, B, C, D, E. Norms should be laid dvwn at two 
levels r the, min i.iur.1 norms (which should bo called D) and 
the desirable norms (which should be called B.) . The 
norms should be, separate for .primary schools and middle 
schools. Schools which are better than the desirable 
norms snould be classified as a. The schools which f-'ll 

"jf' 

b&uwecn the desirable and the minimum norms should bo 
classified as C$ and the schools which fall below the 
minimum norms should be classified as E. The. basis 
for such a [classification should be prepared by the 
State Institute of Education 5 and, on that basis, the 
work of each school should bo annually evaluated, in the 
first instance by the teachers themselves, and later cn by 
the inspecting officers. In this way, it will bo possible 
to know the classification of ‘ schools . into differ ont 
categories every year and this will g^vo. us. an- idea of the 



progress achieved '.and the journey that wo have still • 
, a alee ♦ It will also be possible, on the basis of such 
classification, to evolve a progr ar.ir.ic of assistance 


-I* . 

IjL' 


under which the schools, which arc Lower down in the list, 
would be enabled to oliaib higher. 



Annexure X 


Rate of Transfer from Middle to Secondary Schools 


5 

Year J 

Enrolmen t In 
VIII 

Class 

T 

jj Enrolment in 
1 IX 

Glass 

~{Rate of Trans 
j f r ora Middle t 
5 Secondary Std 

1 

5 

Boys 

jj Girls 

5 

ITot'af 

5 

!i Boys 

J 

[ Girls 
A 

jj Total 
1 

fBoys 

\ 

JG ir- {tod 

Jlsi 

; 19 50 - 51 

14620 

2260 i 

16880 



l 




1951-52 

16189 

2481 

18670 

12019 

1285 

1330 4 

82. 2 

56.9 

78. a 

19 SZ- 53 

17448 

1769 

19217 

14196 

1511 

1570 7 

87. 7 

60.9 

84. 1 

1953-54 

20394 

1315 

21709 

15733 

1156 

16889 

90. 2 

65, 3 

87. 9 

1954-55 

22789 

2793 

25582 

15394 

1273 

16667 

75. 5 

96.9 

76. 3 

1955-56 

23347 

2994 

26341 

19924 

1765 

21689 

87. 4 

63. 2 

84. 8 

1956-57 

31617 

3 457 

350 74 

22791 

2048 

24839 

97.6 

68. 4 

94.3 

19 57-58 

3247| 

4534 

3 700 7 

25595 

2507 

2810 2 

80.9 

72. 5 

80. 1 

19 58-59 

37166 

f 

4554 

41720 

30370 

3045' 

33415 

93. 5 

67.2 

90.3 

1959-60 

! 42637 

5353 

47990 

34250 

3448 

37698 

92. 2 

75. 7 

90. 4 

1960-61 

45873 

610 5 

| 

51978 

. 3 5230 

3712 

38942 

82.6 

69.3 

81. 1 

1961-62 

50 433 

8506 

58939 

4310 8 

4650 

47758 

94.0 

76. 2 

91.3 

1962-63 




49380 

5798 

55178 

97.9 

63. 2 

93.6 


Source : Department of Education, Rajasthan 



M ain Bog ommendat ions of tho Chattor .ii Commit too 
1, Introduction. : 

The r sp c omraond at i on in .tho preceding chapters may app.-ajj 
isolated but arc linked together with a view to tone up 
education and establish better co-ordination between it ■ 
various stages. .Keeping in view the educational environment 
only, as distinct from hereditary factors, we have roca mao i 
mainly with:.- . ; 

(i) The: curriculum at. different stages. Its re cons cru- 
et ion and requirements. 

(ii) Teachers:- Their selection, training and promotion* 

(iii) Examinations;- Their limitations 5 the direction in 

which reform is necessary. 

(iv) Inspections;- The defects of the present system 

and the desirability of a new 
outlook which should be democratic 
and constructive. 

(v) Aims and object:':- Their clarification and realistic 
: _ attainment. 

All these matters are interconnected, and it is only 
when concerted cation is taken in all those directions that 
genuine' Educational reform can be brought about. It is our 
earnest hope that the survey we have made of existing 
conditions and the reforms we have suggested will bo of some 
practical help in this process which is vital for tho 
maintenance of national progress, and welfare. 

(i) Curriculum;- Amongst tho reforms suggested, wo may 
mention the following 

; The oid fashioned coursqs should be changed, making 
room for tho inclusion of • now compulsory subjects. Courses 
at various stages should be adjusted and co-ordinated so chat 
there aro no gaps from the Primary, right up to the University 
stage, , 

For this it is considered - essential that the various 
bodies which frame syllabi must put their heads together ij~ 



concerted manner. 


v/ c have suggested that on the Board 
of secondary Education, Rajasthan there should bo a 
larger representation of actual field workers, and 
domination, by the representatives of the University 
should be lessened. The syllabi of the Secondary Schools 
should bo linked up with the Primary at end and the 
University at 'the other. When the High School and Intor- 
mudiate examinations were under the control of the 
University. High Schools as well as Intermediate Colleges 
weiu l epresented on various University bodies. This 
helped to bring about a certain measure of co-ordination 
at all these stages. With the transfer of. Secondary and 
Intermediate stages, to .the control of the Board of 
Secondary Education, those institutions have ceased to 
have any voice-jin- .'framing -arrieula and syllabi! for 
University examinations . As it is the Secondary Schools 
which are the .feeders .to Universities and Colleges, it 
is cl oar t|aat n they should have some voice in determining 
^shpulid. bo required by way of academic/ 'attainments 


what-. 


from their output for purposes of admission etc. Further, 
when there wap ‘ only one Director in charge of both College 
and School Education who was an" ex-off icio member of all 
important University bodies, some measure of co-ordinatj or 
was effected through his person. Now that separate 
Directors have been appointed and only the collegiate 
Director is ox-officio member of University bodies , 
even* this amount of co-ordination has been lost. 

We, therefore, recommend that the Director of 
school Education should be an ex-officio member of all 
important University bodies. Further, at least three 
heads of Higher Secondary Schools who are members of the 
Board "of Secondary Education should be members of the 
Univqrsity Senate and’ the Academic Council. We are of 



IW 


opinion that tho elective procedure does not always 
yield. We, therefore, suggest that these representative 
of the Board 'should be .nominated by the Chairman of the 
Board in consultation with the Director of J cnooi educa- 
tion. Two of the members nominated should be allottee, 
tho Arts Faculty and. two to the Science Faculty in tho 
University. ! 

The school plans and programmes should bo nearer to 
the realities of life and keep in view tho actual ca.uici hi -s 
of public! at various levels. Purposive and co-operative 
activities stressing the need for, creative thinking and 

freedom of expression should be organised to tho extent that 

! 

they are practicable . 

For. tho 1 sake of concentration of effort and to effect 
an easy transition 1 to the higher secondary system wo consiuo 
it imperative, that, all institutions imparting Secondary 
Education for gar Is and boys should have identical coulees 
in various subjects, some for two years and others for 
three, or later four years, when it become possible to 
extend the Secondary .Course to 12 years . 

Usually- village Higher Secondary Schools find it v,ry ■ 
difficult to cope with j ^creased responsibilities entitled 
by one additional year. They cannot but be poor specimens, 
with a handful of students studying in uncongenial 

localities and ill-equipped school buildings. Wo have 

; 1 

recommended that such schools should work like halfway 
houses. . They should bo designated as Junior secondary 
Schools, and stop, at class X. 

Location and buildings . 

Even in the rural areas in the interior, a few hxga-r 
secondary schools, well-equipped, well-stafied ano. well- 
housed should be established. In those Central Senior 
Secondary Sc hop Is, enrolment should be regulated aim In- 



-141- 

sizo of the classes should' be fixed. 

In towns, too, schools have handicaps . They are 
generally houfed in old-fashioned buildings • and' situated 

.v ■ 

in unhealthy surroundings.' Parents are constantly 
worried about the health and hygiene of their children. 

It is necessary to provide funds for school buildings 
properly designed and suitably located in large towns and 
cities both in villages and in cities there must be 
provision for playing fields and for recreation. Government 
should chalk out a short term as well as ,a long term 
programme, for' this purpose. The improvement of existing 
or the construction of new buildings for largo city 
schools where there is much congestion should receive a 
high priority. This applies both to boys' schools as wcJl 
as girls' schools, and even to colleges. Some of tne o.\0 
.High Schools now converted into Higher, Secondary and Multi- 
purpose Schools are housed in -ancient and dilapidated hous-s 
which ajre entirely unsuited for the now type of education . 

At this point 'of time we are of .opinion that the emphasis 

I ■ : : • 

in dajasthan should shift from expansion 'to consolidation., 
More attention must be paid to quality rather than to 
quantity. Unless this ’ is done standards will fall still 
lower and we shall merely' add to the ranks of the semi- 
educated unemployed who constitute .a .growing danger to the 
stability of society; 

(ii) Teachers s- In the catalogue for apportionment 


Ictcr ioration 


anaards 


are given to top*’ place by over 90 percent of our witness . ••• 
Other evidence also points unerringly in the same dimes:? on 


ineffective, or inefficient 


conno i, 


or do not put ho art and soul into their work; they do not 


stimulate or ..inspire young minds. They mainly look to 

I 

success I in; examination results as the primary aim of 



education. No doubt, there ere -a few exceptions but 
they are merely fighting a rear-guard action. Casualiti ,s 
iir i thoir number' are over on the increase . 

t . ; '■ ;"! 

i.:-. Shortage of teachers in Science and the new subjects 
introduced under. the diversified scheme, preference for 
new and unexperienced -untrained post-graduates over exper xcnc j 
and niatured trained... graduates r unwillingness to go to rural 
areas owing to lack of housing facilities and other 
amenities are some of \ other factors which -account for the 


rot .whicli hag. set .in. 1 ' " 

. < ■' ' ' a 

j To remedy this, .state of things we have recommended 
that experienced trained graduates should .be eligible for 
appointment' [as Senior .Teachers in Higher Secondary Schools 
so long as" there is a [shortage of appropriately qualified 
II. A.' s and MVSe's. Thq posts' of Headmasters of Higher 


Secondary Schools, Inspectors of Schools and Lecturer 
Training Colleges shq.uld be -equivalent and ■ inter chang 
We. hs^p|also made recommendations for impr.oV.ement of 
series, - add : living conditions of' teachers *>:• 


s in 

o able - 
pay 


(ill; lExanimr The system in o.ur 'view requires 
a complete overhaul and. some very radical, reforms. 

Our proposal to stagger the Secondary Examination in 
two stages, one at the end. of the 10th year of schooling 
and the other' at the end of the 11th year .which has already 
been accepted by Government, will help to avoid mental scro.in 
and will provide an opportunity' for diverting a fairly .Largo 

number of .pupils into vocational training and preparation 

i A 

for life. 


Wo have recommended that examinations should not 
dominate the entire educational scone, but should be restr.i/v 
within their proper scope. They should 'not ’ be designed Lc 
jtest the pupils V. .powers of memorization, but of his intofilig- 
grasp of a subject, and of his powers- of assimilation and 



expression. 

With this end. in view we have suggested a certain 

;■■] j ' ' ■■ 

procedure for the setting of question papers and for 
assessment of answer books. We have recommended the 
inclusion of Objective Tests in the subjects in which 
they are suitable,' but this' should be done on the basis 
of experience and experimentation. Similarly wo have 
recommended j that' some weightage should be given to inernal 
assessment of pupils under proper control and supervision, 
i or this purpose we have recommended the proper maintenance 
of cumulative Irecopds of each individual pupil, 

(iv) Inspection;- Wo repeat that some posts of Head- 
masters, Lecturers of Training Colleges and Inspectors of 
Schools should be periodically interchanged to enable the 
Inspectors of Schools not to lose human touch and to play 
their part in the educational system effectively. Further 
with a view to make Inspections constructive and helpful we 
have recommended that Schools be inspected every third year 
or so by teams of experts in addition to ordinary routine 
check ups from time to time. 

(v) Aims and Objectives:- . 

! Many of our witnesses wore of the opinion that 


one of the chief maladies ifrom which education! suffer 


the indifference of parents. As a result of the fast expansion 
of education, the- 'majority of parents of school going children 
are illiterate iand economically backward. Even those who 


are well educated and well-to-do think that their responsibi- 
lity is finished once the child has been admitted into a 


school. But if the pi-oper home atmosphere is missing even 
the most expensive 'school will fail to deliver the goods 
expected from it. Proper education is only possible if the 
home and the school'-cq-operate in this effort. 



- 144 - 


It is, therefore, of the first importance to got 
parents interested in the educational programme of the 

i 

schdol which their children attend. There are many ways 
of bringing this about such as the establishment of Parent 
Teacher Ass oci|ations which are already being tried in some 
of the bettor schools. It is our hope that all schools 
will join in thisf effort,. 



-J. 4 D- 


..Ai'ii-ysiaji'is xii 


;F NOTE 01. THE PH.oGRA.HE 01 
* 0- ^ i 1 Hi 1 i. EJ J.ioTiiipl J » 


..initio: 


The Board of Secondary Education, Hajasthan in 
collaboration with 'the 0 tntr al' Exa. r-Jiat ion Unit ...f tin 
DEi-’SE, has undertaken a ..-onpr eh., n save pro^ranuo cf 
Bxaainativi Reform in Scc,.ndary and Higher Secondary Soli. 

4 " ....-■ 

of the, State. jThis consists cf tne follow in 0 major &**,:. ; 
of r efern: : 

I, Improv-mont of External Examinations; 

II . | Inpr cv oasnt of Int * . . nal As s ^ssuont 5 and 

III. 1 Corr os^.-no iny nhan 0 »s ,:in our r icuium, 

: instruction, text-bcoks and teacher c due at 

I. , , Improvement of Externa l Examination : 

• I This is to bi achieved by effecting improv it 

a) Questions, question papers and seer iny 
. . procedures of written examinations; 

b) Iraprcvrhiont ill th. p.:o^..;dur: cf o-.-nduotin^ 
practi-al examinations and scoring then ns 

f objectively' as possible; and 

c ) Iraprcv Hi; nt :ui the ::r ohanic s of ' conduct irr, 
exai.iinatii.ns. 

a ) Improv omen t of wri t ten exa-.ri nat.icns : 

This proyr aiiac is on in a phased nanner . 

' '■ . t 1 

In the f irjst phase an int-snsivo pr 0 p ar at ion pr o ■ , r anno 

was Undertaken in the •oora .subjects of Gan oral Science, 

Social Studied and Exnuontary hath sciatic s bn for e the 

introduction of proposed chanyos in the Bear'd exaninat ic 

The preparation programme included: 

i) training of paper sort tors; 

ii) preparation of sample question papers and 
evaluation brochures} and circulating then 
to all sec^ndar y/hiyhor secondary schools in t 

State; 



preparation u' unit t.sts and c irculat inr 
them to a..l the schools; 

' iv) r e stablishmont cl a pool o-f tost items at 
the opal cl Of lice; 

v ) i organising district .vovol seminar s c f 

i headmaster s and tea^ne. s in evaluation; and 

vi) i conducting Workshops for ' the training cf 
t-each x.' s in o |b j ee t iv o- e ..ntr ed teaching and 
. jvaluat:!.. n wifoh the ho^-p gf. resource persons 
trained by the Central Examination Unit. 

The pr opar at :b.n 'programme is followed by th" 
actual implementation of the ' reform. The ieiplejiantat ic n 
a: 1 o gr arue ino lud o s t h o fe llcv; in r • 

i) . Expcrii\untjal tty- cut of sample question papers; 

■f try-out analysis to actual paper 


ii) Su 
sc 


jp plying 
tt cr ; 




iii) Sotting of ! papers by trained persons; 


iv) 


Observation cf adninistrat ion cf imp* evod 
examinations at the State- lov-i; and 


v)| IntonsxvJ foliov/-up study regarding the im*: 


of this .hange'. 


Both pp oparation and implementation pregr arises 
in respect of Gsjieral Science, Social Studies and El .neritae y 


Hat hemat ic s hav p 


be 


jen neap Is ted and improved examinations 
will be .administered to the students at the Stats- level on 
the 12th, 13th and. 15 th Harsh, • 1S65, after which an intensive 
follow- up study of its impact w ill bo undertaken* 

_In the second phase of improving written oxaniru.it- 
- ion s the Board has ; taken up two more core subjects and four 

V '■ I::.;/-' ' 

elective subjects, namely, English and Hindi, and .Physics, 
Chemistry, Biology and Hath;. 1 foies respectively. Under 
this ox pans ion . pr egr ammo the training of paper setters 
and preparation uf sample question papers and unit tests 
have been oofipleted '.ihiias othoi’ preparations are underway. 



, - 147 - 

b ) I npr ov cm ,.nt y.f practical x r ami na twns : 


The Do 


ai 1 


>G ... noucts practical examinations in the 
electives of Physios, Chemistry and Biology, Those 
oxa. rinatiens are l;.r..ng improved by: 

i) Sampling cent ant end shills-; 

ii) In tr cc'.ao ing an element .f thinking and 

' pr dblan- sc Iv ins through exper iment al wer l: j and 

iii) Increasing the reliability cf scoring. 

• Thr as xcp.m-: amenta! try-outs haw boon conplet o-d. 
f_r the dcw.lcpm.nt of effective procedures of conduct in; 
exam relations and so-rmig pupil performance. The average 
renter -rat or *• eliaba.-.aty m these examinations nas inc.-. as: r 
tc ,90 which is indeed- quite high. The aotual i:.:p... , v ; x t 
•in the practical examinations will b: introduced by 
making nofc cssary preparations It'.- tho purpose, A few 
i*;iu. 4 diati. changes have’ boon introduced in the practical 
examination j m Ohomistr'y from march, 1965. 

c ) Improv meent in the mechanics of con d uc . t iri e 
e xaminations ; Under this programme a plan has been werl-:. d 
out where-' the examinat ion will be able to serve off retr.v rly 
its duel purpose, namely testing. those student s for- whoa 
secondary education is terminal and. testing those for './hoi 
it is a continuing stags. Var: ious other aspects related 
to the. atiministrut ion- and organization of public 
examination's a. e aejso being improved. - 
r II , . Improvement df Internal Assessmen t ; 

, . This aspect of examination reform is being 

approaciiedvby : 

; . a) -Supplying impr wV o-d questions, question paper : 
and unit tests' for the-- impr cv emont of school 
examinations 8 , 

fo b) Developing a compr elnnsiv-- scheme of interna! 

| assessment through exper iiiontaticn. 



143- 


So fair ncr o than 1000 good quo st ions in seven 
subjects have been c it-culated to all the schools of the 
State in the fern -of specimen question pppc.es, unit tests 
and end xv idual tebi -likens , About 1000 r.ior u it a ns will 
j. each on— scnools in bii- near xucure* In ate 11 tee. Hoes 
o on Gcv mi in 0 on 15 >10. ^ 00 -4.8.x 8ii o, c on t*' ini cm m8ii mi Ii8v o "bo on 
prepared, . out 'of which 10 booklets hav- already been sent 
to the schools by the Board, 

It is pr ope. sod to - select four oxp-r incntal 

schools for- developing p:. oocdur os and .instruments of 

iixt ernal 'asr e s |ment ■ w it h a sp t c ial en'ph asis on; 

• aj) ' |Evaluat ing student s' g d..v -lopment in those 
i.aspept s whxch cannot bo neasured adequately 
; by wr itten examinations! and 

b) j Us ins evaluation for the improvement of 
achievement through diagnostic tost, 

;.roview tests, academic guidance and so forth. 


III. O ther 0 or ie spending- Changes 


/ 


In order; to male the ' pi ogr'anmc of examination 


reform effect ivo, 


it is necessary to bring about ccrresp-ndx:] 


changes in ; purr yc alum, toxt-boelcs, class-roen- instruction and 
o ^acn -r - bp a in ing . . For. the s pur peso., ..the B-ard has dev -loped 
a five year plan and it- is being implemented in collaboration 
with various agon-aids lone 


G eht r a 1 £x an in at i diji ' Un i 


1.0 


.ne 


unde: 


ir the guidan-e of the 


This -includes: 


i) Formulation of objectives and development of 
new curricula j 1 


ii) Pro 
in 


vising in-service training to teachers 
the te-.Am:.ques of c-b j cot iv e- based 


instruction: 

i .. . ■■■ I'... ’ I . 

\. 

iii) improvement c-f . pro- service training of teachers 
- - - -t o i- |•st^itr--•th.£ ; -n hvjr r oquir spent- s ijn collaboration 
| with tide Training Or lieges of the State. 


As stated earlier-, improvements in the Board Exanina- 
of three subjects; : j$ ac 4 1 y> General. Sc ience, Social Studies ai 



149 - 


Siemontary iiathouat ics are bein 0 introduced frca nur cli, 196 
Similar -u.ipr Cv n t s jin cnc. elective subjects of Physics, 
oncuistry , Biology and *.atha:iat'.L.s have bean proposed in. I, 
-Uiu. ^duj eel from one year 1967. Prom that year iuprev. : t 
in uiie practical examinations in Physics, Chemistry and 

i 

Biology will also be introduc-od, Improvement in the 
question papers of higher English and low er En "".’Hsh 
higher Hindi and lower Hindi are likely to cone about finr 
lo6o» Simulninaciisly , imp'^ev m nt in the written 
exaii mat ions .conduct cd by the schools are being introduced 
j-ii a pxann.vd uanner , V/non the procedures and instr uncut s 
icr a '-ci.ipr ehe ns ..ve int r.rnal assessment wi 11 be dev: Ion;. d 
onoouyh exp.rr inentation :ui selected schools, these will 
also oc introauced in each school of the State. The 
Board, in collaboration with the-. Central Ssaaination Unit, 
uas cuicc-r taken an extensive picgr ammo of follow-up resoarc: 


and stud is s tv appraise 
reform at the stage of 


i. - impact of the examination 
secondary o .due at ion in the State 


i 




Outline of! a proposal formulated by the 
Board of Secondary Education, Rajasthan 


The high , percentage; of failures in examinations at 

all levels, particularly at the school leaving stage, has 

’ i 

been causing concern among everyone involved in educational 
work. The' Central Advisory Board of Education passed a 
resolution .in -its . XXX Session advising the authorities 
concerned to accelerate their efforts for eliminating 
wastage by speedy improvemc .Ls in the teaching and learning 
process, by. the creation of. conditions for "harder and core 
concentrated work and through introducing quick measures 
for reorgarjis ing the examination system. What is currently 
engaging 'the mind of the Government and the Board of 
Secondary Education, Rajasthan, is the introduction of a 
school leaving certificate examination at the end of class X. 
The implication is that those students who. desire to 
terminate formal education at the secondary stage will be 
able to do so after class X, and only those desirous of 
pursuing higher education will need to take the higher 
secondary examination, the standard of which may have to be 
raised, further. This is based on the experience that for 
most of the vocations or employments which are taken up 

i i.i . ■ 

after school, jthe present higher secondary standard is not 
necessary. For students who desire to treat the higher- 
secondary examination ; as the terminal point, it would be 
suff icient | to- aim at general educational development, and 
no formal ^chooling after class X should be necessary. 

The pattern which such a school leaving examination 
at the end . of class Xwill take has bden worked out by the 



-151- 


the secondary school examination as consisting of two 
parts and subject to certain conditions as follows : 

P_ ar t I ; Secondary School- Leaving Certificate 

Examination (which will be identical with 
higher secondary Part I) which may consist 
of tije following subjects ; 

,.i 1. Mother tong-ue (Hindi or Gujrati etc. as 

the case may be) two papers (instead 
of one as at present). 

2 *. The third language^ Sanskrit or any other 
! Indian language - one paper. 

3. Core subjects - General Science, Social 
' Studies and Elementary Mathematics - 

three papers. 

4. Art! and Craft - One paper. 

£.AS±_H.'' The Secondary Examination. This may 

consist of all the subjects provided 
for! in' the school leaving certificate 
examination plus the following: 

5. Three optional subjects out of any of the 

Group of Humanities, Science, Commerce 
or ■ Agriculture provided by the Board at 
present for the Secondary School 
Examinations.^. 

6. English. 

This will be subject to the following conditions: 

(a) Tuition in all the six subjects will' be 
compulsorily impart' 1 in all recognised 
schools, " 

•(b) Students who pass only in the first four, 
subjects will get the secondary school 
. leaving certificate. 

(c) Students who pass in all the subjects of both 
the | examinations together will get the 
secondary examination certificate.- 

(d) Divisions and distinctions will be awarded 
to candidates of both kinds (who pass the 

; Secondary School Leading Certificate or 
Secondary Examination) according to their 
Group (I -tS). IV or I to VI). 

• (e) For purposes of admission to the Pre-University 

class or Pre- Professional classes of Technical 

; ■ College, it will be : essential to pass the 

Secondary School Examination in all subjects 
together . , , 

(f) Admission to other institutions offering 
diploma courses e.g. Polytechnics, will be 
regulated by their own requirements. But 
students who pass the Secondary School 
Exa.mina.tion in stages should be deemed to 
be eligible for admission on the basis of 
their total marks (obtained, in -stages;) put 

■Pon’A’PPiAYi * 1 



(g) Students who pass the Secondary School Leaving 

Certificate Examination will bo eligible to" 
pass the remaining subjects s o pur at oly and h. ; 
awarded certificates to that effect , ' after 
passing the electives as wall as English, they 
will be eligible for admission to class XI of 
the Higher | Secondary Schools, which will 
provide them a further opportunity of securing 
a division and entering the Three fear Degree 
course or a Professional College. 

(h) For admission to other walks of life, o.g. 

teachership or clerical or other situations., 

I employing authorities may insist on success 
gat ! the Secondary School Leaving Certificate 
Examination plus success at any one of the 
additional subjects like English or the 
optionals or both, according to their respective 
requirements. 

I 

On the basis of the assessment of examination 
results conducted by the Board of Secondary Education, 
it can bo said that the results at the School Leaving 
Secondary Examination stage would be approximately 80 # 
'and that addition of higher Hindi is not likely to affect 

i 

the results substantially. At the same time standards 
will not suffer in any serious sonso, because persons 
desirous of pursuing higher studios will bo required to 
secure the higher secondary certificate , 



Annexure XI Y 


-153- 

Establishment of Cooperative Rook Banks ; 

It is jfound that .the. students of secondary schools 

i ! 

and colleges ' suffer in, their studios to a very great extent 

because | of a r lack of textbooks. This appens particularly 

[ 

so in rural 'areas. To meet this problem, it is suggested 
that every educational institution above the elementary 
stage should establish a cooperative book bank, the 
object of ; which would .be to supply textbooks to all students 
who need them. 

?.• • The funds for'! these banks may be raised as follows: 

.:( 1 ) A compulsory small. 'fee (which may vary from Rs 1 to 
Rs 2, per year) to .be cr lie cted from every student on the 
rolls .of ithet institution irrespective of the fact whether 
he borrows the" book.. .from.' the book bank or not’; (2) donatio ns 
and co.ntributdo.ns from the public ; and (3) grarit-in-aid 
given by the State ■ Government which should ordinarily be 
■in some proportion to the amounts collected under (i) and 

( 2) ■. o;.,/ U ■ „ .'... ' ■ 

I 

3. -The funds; of the. cooperative book bank should be 

invested., in .the purchase of : textbooks which should be made 

i 

available to : ne edy . students . The target to be aimed, at is 
to provide every textbook to every student who needs 
assistance for the purpose within one or two weeks of the 
beginning of the school year. 

4. Every student borrowing textbooks from the bank should 
be required to make a small payment, generally equal to 
one-tenth to one-fifteenth of the prices of the books he 
borrows. ThiSj would bje a :| definite advantage to the 
student (because he gets the textbooks for a nominal payment 
and to the bank (by augmenting its resources). Moreover, 
the students will value the privilege better if they are 
giverj the books for a small payment rather than as a fr.e 

i 

gift. 


-154-r 

..expected to keep them in good conditions and return 

them at the end -of the "year. For failure to do so, 

or for damage .caused to the books, it should be open to 

the bank to recover damages from him to cover the cost 
. books ! ' ' • 

of the _ damaged or lost. This condition would, in 
itself, act as a very good check andbuild up right 
attitudes anp character among the students and it would 
enable each textbook to be used for 5-6 years by different 
batches of students. The 1 overall cost of running the 
programme could thus be reduced substantially. 

6. The book banks may also solicit and- accept donations 
in the form of books. ;; There arc several students who buy 

. books - at the beginning of the school year and these are 

'i 

generally thrown away at its end. If such students could 
• be persuaded to keep. 'their books carefully and to donate 
them to the book bank at the end of the year so that they 
could be used by other' batches of students, a good deal 
of investment in kind would become available. 

7. The book '.bank should be un by the students 
themselves .- under the guidance of the staff. 



155 


ANMEXUR5 No. XV 

Trans fer Rate; from Secondary to Collegiat e 
Educa;tion I \ ~ ~ 

In Rajasthan, the Secondary School consisted of. 

j ' 

°nly ten classes and was followed by a four-year degree 

course, until the higher secondary pattern was adopted. 

From 1950-51 to 1956-57, only the first of these systems 

prevailed. 1 From 1960-61, only the second of these systems 

is in vogue. In the tnree intervening years, viz,, 

19.37-o 8, 1958-59 and 1959-60, both the systems were 

partially in- vogue. 

* 

2. In order to determine the rate of transfer from 

the school to the collegiate stage, therefore, one 
has to take, a number of factors into consideration. 

For instance, we shall have to compare (l) the rate 
of transfer from class X to class XI (and the first 
year of the; old four-year degree course) as well as( 2) 
the rate of transfer from -lass XI to the first 
year of the three year degree-course as well as 
the rate of transfer from the first year of the 
old rour-yjoar degree course to the second year of the 
same course. The relevant statistics in this 
respect are given., in the- foil owing table: 



1958- 59 265 55 ^ . 56 111' 7 51 52.4 75.0 

1959- 60 301 123 . ’ 20 143 52 5470 46.8 

1960- 61 307 . 169 - - 169 4 5 56.1 31.5 

1 9 61- 62 .363 209 - 209 . 46 68.1 27.2 

1962- 63 - . ’ 245 - 245 72 67.5 34.4 


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Bci s io information about. the Colleges for Genera 
in Rajasthan 
' • - -(1363-64) 


;.ii ( ' U 


S7 MFIi™?'Tn3"CoIIcs3 

N'c . 


1. AJMKt 1 

. ] 1 . Govt. College, Ajmer 
■ 2 , S .D . Govt .Celle gie , Beawar 
• r 3 . Govt .College, Mishangarh 

4. Dayanand Co lie go, Ajmer 

5. Savtri Girls Collage, Ajmer 

6. Sophia Coiiege(Gir Is) , Ajmer 

2 » aJj 1 . / ill 

7 . R .71 . Co lie ge , Alv/ar 

3. BHARAT PUR 

3, M S.J. College Bharat pur 
9. Govt. College Dhclpur ■ 

4. JAIPUR 

10 v Gcvt . College Dausa i 

11. Soth R . L. Sahhr ia Coilefee. 

Ka lad or a. ' 

12. Govt .College, Kctputli 

13. Maharaja' s College, Jaipur 

14. Maharani' s College, Jaipur 
lb. University Arts College, 

j Jaipur 

16. Agarwal College, Jaipur- 

17. S. So Jain Subodh College, 

Jaipur ■ 

13. S.S.G. Par aelc College, Jaipur 

19. Bharat 'O^pak Sanaa j Evening 
Cclxege, Jaipur : 

5. JHUU JHUUU •' 

20. Seth Moti Lai College, 

Jhunjhunu 

21. Chir aw a College, Chirawa 

22. S.S. College, liulcan cigar h 

23. G.V.Pcddar College, Nav/algarh 

24. Birla Arts College, Pilani 

25. Birla Science & Commerce 
College, Pilani 

6. SIKAR 

26. Shri Malayan College, Sikar 

27. Chamar ia College, Fatchour 
23. Ruia College, Ramgarh 


Total" " 
Enr c 1- 
cient * 

Average. 
No* of 
students 

pC'C 

teacher 

""Average” 
cost per 
student 

o 

4 

”5 — 

1640 

17 

477 

647 

16 

561 

261 

10 

731 

309 

13 

733' 

324 

16 

405 

123 

3 

546 


1251 

23 

293 

331 

' 20 ' 

345 

105 

n 

793 

205 

10 

535 

317 

13 

535 

207 

13 

366 

1669 

17 

433 

1472 

16 

424 

764 

14 

594 

. 741 

•30 

134 

133 

15 

349 

425 

30 

202 

149 


136 


354 

20 

317 

233 

12 

494 

297 

14‘ 

317 

433 

16 

452 

37 

4 

2739 

493 

7 

135S 


360 ' 

12 

• 593 

121 

3 

- 519 

163 

11- 

495 



-2' 




"l 2 

3 

4 

5 

7 . S av; a i i la clhc p ur 




H ^ ® L r OV I* > i\ c>. — Cv H 1 3- 

4 1 

211 

13 

512 

EM Tunic _ : - 

30 1- LrO^/'Ci * 0o.L.i^[^0 ^ Perils 

131 

6 

330 

31, B&nastnali Vidya x :neth, 

171 

4 

1532 

Ban a st hi li 




9. Bile an or , ' 

32. Dun gar College, '. Bikaner 

915 

14 

442 

33. ii.S, Girls College, Bikaner 

265 

10 

339 

34:# Bo J«S .R * Jain Cc 1 a . c-g c ? Oilman cr 

256 

20 

417 

10, Ohoru 

35. Luhia Collage, Chur-u 

475 

33 

431 

33. Seth Budhuial ijuhgar 'College 

190 

10 

5S3 

Sar Gar shahr 




' 11 • Ganganagar 
37 . Govt . College' Ganganagar 

533 

13 

„ .443.. 

.33. B.IL.G. Govt. Girls College 

173 

12 

555 

S hr i ■ Gang ana gar 




■ 39. Khalsa College, Ganganagar 
j 1 . 

241 

■ 16 

... 5.40 

12. Jodhpur el 

40, Katuala llchru Hall of Uonon 

517 

15-' 

360 

13 . Nagaur • 

4.1 „ Bail gar College, iDidwana , ; 

342 • 

■' 14 

■ 477 

14 . Pali 




42, Ban gar College, Pali 

66 

5 

1133 

4.3, S.P.U. Degree College,Phalna 

162 

' '16 

524. 

15. Sir chi 




44. Govt. Girls Sirohi 

317 

li 

'654 

\ 

16. Kota 




45. Govt.’ College, Kota 

46. G.D.B. Girls College, Kota 

1327 

20 

404 i 

290 

12 

253 

17. Bundi 




47. Govt. College, Bundi 

227 

o 

O 

.0 . 

13. Jhalav/ar e 

43, Govt .College, Jhalav/ar ^ 

225 

12 

591 . 

19. Bansv/ara 

49. Govt .College, Bansv/ara 

149 • 

. .6 ' 

.1144 . 

20. Bhilv/ara i 



rV# 

7<> 

50. Govt .College, Bhilvjar a 

625 

23 

536 

21. Chittorgarh 
51, Govt .College, Chittorgarh 

223 

13 

■ 427 

22, Dungarpur 

52. Govt, College, Duhgarpur 

72 

' 7 

■333 

23 » Udaipur 

53, M.B. Collage, Udaipur.. 

1407 

15' 

464' • 

54 ., S ,. M , B o C c lie ge , N athadv/ar a 
55. Mira Girls . College, Udaipur 

39 

"3 

749 

277 

9 

667 

56. Bhopal .Nobles College. Udaipur 201 

^*7 . ftnv r> ill i ’nr n r. 1 1 ^ rv m TTH o 4 *n it;'* 9/Ll 

9 

Q 

663 
2R5 , 



159 


A Kd.BA ino NO . AV I_-J bjl 

Distribution u' colleges for general educate...!-; 
according to Enrolment and av... ag: number of 
student ': e:r teacher 


Average 

1 

Enrolracrit - ” 


■*“— ' ~ rr 1 


no. oi 0 Be lew 0100- 0200-1300- 

students filOO | -0200 0300 0500 

per teacher 5 • ' 0 1 (j 0 

0500- 0 Abe ve™ 
01000 0 1000 
O 0 

r ■ to- 

0 

1 • 

and •"! 
50/ be low 

2 

1 



3 

O 

1 — 1 

l 

ID 

2 

7 7 1 

- 

- 

17 

11-15 

- 

3 7 " 4 

0 

O 

2 

19 

16-20 

» 

1 2 3 

4 

3 

13 

21-30 

- 

I 

- - 1 

2 

1 

> 4 

30 and above - 

1 

- 

• 

1 

Tc-tal 

4 

12 16 10 

9 

6 

57 


•Ai '• I • Oui. U.. I 3 li Co XjL-(b) II 


1 6 


i'snsr ai c due at .-.cm 


Distribution ci' c v Ixogos ir. 
according to am average- number of students per t- 
and annual cost per puoil 

Average annuall|__ _ Average n uEb i~^'TtliTant ”oer teacher 
cost per 6-10T^T^ri6rTdr^-3^30^^^t; 

iLb exov; Q J li jj abov e _ 


;tC. 


hi 


3 slow ns. 300 
300-400 
400-500 
500-600 
600-700 
700-800 
300-S00 
S00-1000 
Above 1000 


o 


1 

4 

6 

6 

1 

1 


3 


3 


6 

6 

15 

14 

4 

4 
3 

5 


local 


17 


57 


3 


19 


13 


4 


1 



160 


lillbACURS Nc . iCVI(>)-m ■ ■ 

Distribution of colleges in gcrrral education 
according to .-.enrolment and. average annual o,st 
per student 



Average 0 , _ En rolm ent 'l 

annual cost (} BoXovT^TOO- $ 300-""5-. 500- "Above U 'Tct'aX" 

l&L J:l^dent _J_100 0200 0 .300 fl 500 1 000 ft 1 QQQ j 


Belo 1 .; 1. 300 - 1 2 1 1 1 ... 6 

1. 300-400 - 1 - ; 2 1 2 - C 

iO • 400—500 ■ — 1 5 4 — 5 15 

lb. 500-600 | 4 3 2 5 - 14 

Rs. 6U0-700 ' 12 l 4 

Pi, 700-300 1 1 1 - l - , 4 

•W 3Q0-900 1 1 1 - - - 3 

Pi. 300- 1000-,.. ... 1. ■•••- _ . 

-Above 1000 ; & :S i " - .. .1 - - 5 

Total 4 12 " 16 10 i 6 ' " 57 



161 


-Ai'ij : Aj XV 11 

Distr'iotwise percentage cl populat ion of 
Scheduled Caste and Scheduled Tribes to 
total population in Rajasthan (1961) 


flame of : 1_ P er ce n t age of ~ ~ ~ 

the : SScHeduied * {scheduled " {Total Population 

District {Casts papula- {tribes popu- {of Scheduled oast 
it ion to total {iat ion tc {& Scheduled. T. ibo 
{population {total popula- {to total popuiat- 
_2 { t ion { Ion ox th e State 


1. Ajmer 

17.9 

1.6 

19.6 

2 . Alv/ar 

17.3 

3.1 

25.9 

3 .Bharat pur 

21.4 

2.3 

24.2 

4. Jaipur 

17.0 

11.5 

23.5 

5 , Jhun jhunu 

13.3 

1.6 

15.4 

6,Sav;ai Xadhcpur 

22.3 

22.2 

44,5 

7.Sikar 

14.0 

2.5 

16,5 

3 ,Tonk 

21.2 

11.5 

32.7 

9. Bikaner 

14.3 

0.2 

15.0 

10 .Chur u 

18.1 

0.5 

13.6 

ll.Ganganagar 

23.7 

•0.2 

23.9 

12 .Barmer 

6.5 

5.4 

11.9 

13. Jalore 

16.6 

3.0 

24.6 

14, Jaisalmer 

13,4 

3.2 

16.6 

15 * Jodhpur 

12.7 

2.0 . ■ 

14.7 

16^]Jagaur 

17.5 

a* 3 

17.3 

17. Pali 

17.9 

4.7 

22.6 

iB.S.irchi 

19.0 

21.0 

40.0 

19 » Kc t a 

13.1 

14.7 1 

32,3 

20 .Bundi i 

13.3 

17.7 

36.0 

21, Jhalawar 

16.9 

10.5 

37.4 

2 2. Ban swara 

4.6 

62.6 

67.2 

23,Bhilwara 

16.2 

9,4 

25.6 

24,Chittorgarh ' 

20.5 

21.9 

42,4 

25 ,^P-b'ir-pur 

4.6 

60.1 

64.7 

2 6. Udaipur 

3.7 

28.6 

37.3 


Total for 




ths State 

16.7 

11.5 

23.2 


as a v/hole 



- 162 - 


ANHEX URE XVIII 


™.,state. BOaRD OF TEaC HSR .EDUCATION 

In the days to coaie, the pre-service and 
inservice training! of teachers will be the most 
significant function to be undertaken by the State 
education. Departments . In addition, the Department ' 
will- also have to organise programmes of in-service 
education for. its own employees on the administrative 
and the supervisory side. It is to look after these 
programmes that the State Institute of Education has 
been mainly created. 

2. The object of this note is to suggest a manner 
in whichp the State Institute of Education could 
develop an jintensive and integrated programme of 
teacher, education . The proposals made here are 
broadly based on the lines of the Area Training 
authorities ir> England, the main difference being that, 
while the *rea Training Authorities in England are 
built : round a University as a centre, the programme 
outlined here is built up with the entire State as a 

unit and under the auspices of the State Institute of 
Education. 

^ * It is suggested that the State Covernnent should 

estaolish a State Board of Teacher Education. This may 

be constituted, in the; first instance, by executive 

■wders. Later on, a statutory basis may be given to 

it, if necessary. The composition of the Board should 

be on the following lines 

, I 

i Ci) The Director of Education - Chairman 

■ i ' , 

(ii) The Principal of the State 
Institute- of Education 


Vice-Chairman 



-163- 


(iii) Some representatives of Training 
Colleges and of University 
Departments of Education in the 
S t at e • 

(iv) Socie Principals of Training 

Institutions for Elementary and 
Pre-primary School Teachers. 

(v) Some non-off icial ; educationists , ' 

(vi) A senior officer of the State - Member- 

Institute. of Education Secretary 

All the members of the Board would be nominated. 

It will be seen that this' type of a composition 

brings together all the interests concerned in 

the development ; of teacher education. Today, our 

main weakness is that the training of teachers at 

different levels is run in water-tight and isolated 

compartments. This isolation will be done away 

with under this ■programme and an integrated body 

which has experience of' all, levels of teacher 

education would have been brought into existence. 

4. The ‘functions of the Board would be broadly 

on the following lines ; 

(i) To prescribe standards which every training 
institution in the State to fulfil; 

( ii ) To prescribe curricula for training 
institutions for teachers; 


(iii) 


To .arrange for inspections of training 
institutions for teachers and to grant 
recognition to them; 


(iv) To hold examinations at the end of 

prescribed courses for teacher education 
and to grant certificates or diplomas; 


(v) To advise the Department on programmes of 
in-service education for teachers; and 


(vi) To prepare plans and programmes for the 
development of teacher education in the 
State quantitatively and qualitatively . 

5. The Board will begin to function for the 

training of elementary school teachers only in 


164 /- . , 



- 164 - 


thc f~rst instance . But later on, its functions nay 
be extended to the training of secondary and other 
specialised teachers as well. 

6* It will be seen that the main advantage of 
such an organisation is to create an integrated 
agency for the development of teacher education. 

For instance, this Board (with the State Institute 
of Education as its executive wing) will prepare 
plans for the quantitative and qualitative 
development of teacher education, lay down conditions 
for recognition of training institutions, inspect 
training institutions !from time to time, prescribe 
courses and curricula, hold examinations and award 
certificates or diplomas, provide in-service 

education programmes to the teacher educators and 

I 

produce the necessary literature needed for the 
pre-se,rvice and in-service education of teachers. 

Such an agency |is badly needed in the present 
situation where under qualified and stagnating 
teachers are the biggest hurdle to progress. 




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t> 

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CO 


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LO 


! LO 

i 

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1 

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l 

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1 


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1 

tM 

l 

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0 

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■ CD 

CD 

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increase 



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- 177 - 


Table No,B-l Statistics of .primary' School Education 
irfTlaj as than 

(1G50-51 to 1980-81) 


Years 



Id 50- 51 

1955-56 

" 1960-61 

1965-66 

1970-71 1975-76 1960 -f 


■ ■■■■1 



,,{hs ti-RKV- 

..(Pro- 

(Pro- fit o- 

— — •" 



. C 

tes) 

.1 actions) 

ioedonoP) ^ c 

1. 

2. • 

" 3. 

4. 

5. 

6, 

7. 8 • 

dumber of" 

4,336 

8,186 

14,548 

18 , 600 



schools 






enrolment (I-V) 
v i) Boys 

2 75 , 353 

438,864 

899 ,042 

1450,250 

2100,000 

2600,000 2u 

ei) Girls 

54,852 

97,648 

215,460 

409,750 

300,000 

1600,000 ■ 

ii) Total. 

330,205, . ■ 

536,512 

1114,502 

1860 ,0u0 

3000,000 

4200,000 50 j 

’or centavo 
increase' in 
enrolment in 







-ho Plan period 






.,) Boys 
'.) dir Is 
C Total 


59.4 

104.9 

61.3 

44.8 

23.8 7- 


78.0 

62.5 

■120.7 
107. 7 

90.2 

66.9 

119,6 

61.3 

77,8 57. 

40.0 1C- 

'■.■'’cra/e annual 







in crease in 







enrolment 







‘ Boys 

’ . ) dir Is 


9.7 

15.4 

10.0 

7.6 

4.4 1 , 


12 . 5 

17.1 

13,7 

17,1 

12 . 2 

l) Total 


10.2 

15.7 

10.8 

10.0 

7.1 3. 

u umber o ' 
Teachers 
’.} I'iale 

7,728 

13,108 

25,590 

38,400 



. ) Idiiudu 

i 1,006 

1,625 

2,912 

4,000 



v Total 

! 8,733 

14,733 

28,502 

42,400 




a r centavo of 
rained Teachers 


'Vile 

■; Pemale 
Total 

vo:a^j number 
ad students 
as teacher 

ted Direct 
up end iturc 
t;,in lakhs) 

'er^^e oontal 
'reuse in 
penditure in 
Plan period 
v:e cost 
eupil 
(b,; 

• >voru,je annual 
salary por teach 

V • ) 

‘orcenta^e of 
teacher cost to 
total Direct exp 
'ercenta^e of 

\:iM i n ^ J • 


28,7 

41,3 

30.2 

38.8 

49.9 
‘±0.0 

51,3 

45.8 

60.0 

77.5 

60.0 

75.0 

26 

27 

31 

37 

84,30 

130.79 

293.97 

608.1 


9.1 

18 . 4 

15.i 

• 36.8 

33.00 

33.3 

38.: 

640 

ci’ 

689 

924 ’ ' 

1300 

86.4 , • 

85.0 

89.5 ’ 

90.0 

*91,3 

93. .0 

96.3 

97.0 



dumber of" 
jchools 

enrolment (I-V) 
>i) Boys 

ii) Girls 

Total. 

’or centals 
.increase- in 
enrolment in 
iiO Plan period 

U) Boys 
ii) Girls 
0 Total 

‘"'■ v or a/e annual 
Increase in 
enrolment 
•i) Boys 
':) Girls 
l) To tel 

number o ‘ 

Teachers 
( '.) hale 

: ) FeIi: ;i lo j 

. 1 To cal ! 

vr ceatf .je of 
'' rained Teachers 


4,336 

275,353 

54,852 

330,205, 


7,72 q 

1,005 

8,733 


8,186 14,548 18,600 

438,864 39s, 0-12 1450,250 2100,000 

97,648 215,460 409,750 900,000 

536,512 1114,502 1860,000 3000,000 


59.4 
78.0 

62.5 


9.7 
12 . 5 
10.2 


13,108 

1,625 

14,733 


104.9 
' 120.7 
107. 7 


61.3 

90.2 

66,9 


44.8 

119,6 

61.3 


2600,000 

1600,000 

4200,000 


50 ,. 


23.8 

77.8 
40.0 


10 


1 5 . 4 

10,0 

7.6 

4.4 

17.1 

13.7 

17,1 

12,; 

15.7 

10.8 

10.0 

7.1 

,590 

38,400 



912 

4,000 



502 

42,400. 




; 'i.uiv; 

28,7 

38.8 

51,3 

77.5 

) Penale 

41,3 

49.9 

45.8 

60,0 

; Total 

30.2 

40.0 

60.0 

75.0 ■ 

number 
d students 
■ ;r teacher 

26 

27 

31 '■ 

37 

t;_d Direct 

npcnditurc 
la, in lakhs) 

84.30 

130.79 

293.97 

608.0 

'era 0 e oontol 
reuse in 
.ponditure in 
o. Plan period 
coot 


S.l 

CO 

n'h- 

15,6 

supil 

..vera^e annual 
salary per teach' 
(hi . ) 

’or centavo of 
toacher cost to 
total Dixect exp 

• 36.8 

33.00 

33,3 

38.2 

640 

c; r 

689 

924 

1300 

86.4 , - 

• 

85.0 

89,5 ' 

90.0 

^'ercenta^e of 91.3 

afolic expendi- 

total exn. 

93.0 

96.3 

97.0 

F'rojections have been done 

for enrolment onlv. 

> no; education 

Department, R; 

■ijus than. 





-178- 


Table Ho,B,2 - Statistics of l'-dcldlc School li.ucation in Rajasthan 

(1950-51 to 1980-81) 


Item 



1950-51 1955-56 1960-61 


1965-66 

(Estimates) 


1970-71 

(Pro- 

jections) 


1, Muiaber of 
schools 
f . fnr olinent 
(VI-VIII)-. 
(i) Boys . 

732 

51,873 

(ii) Birls 

8,622 

(iii) Total 

60,495 

3. Percentage, 
increase in 
enrolment' in the 
Plan period 

J 

(i) Boys 


(ii) Girls 


(iii) Total 


4. Averag’d annual 
increase in 
enrolment 


(i) Boys 
(ii) Girls 
(.iii) .Total 


S.Numhei of 

teachers 


(i) Male 
(ii) Female 
Uii) Total 

5,570 

916 

6,486 

G. Per cent age 

of trained 
teachers 


(i) Male 
(ii) Female 
(iii) Total 

35.2 
28.0 

74.2 

1 average 
number of 
■ > tud en ts 
per teacher 

18 

d Total direct 
expenditure 
(Rs. in lal;hs) 

48.54 

>•'. Average annual 
increase in 
expenditure in 
Plan period 



907 

1416 

1757 

95,861 

1,79,499 

3,20,350 

11,405. 

.. 

2.7,571.. 

_ ■ 79 , 650 

107,266 

2,07,070 

.4,00,000 


84.8 

87.2 

78.4 

32.2 

141.7 

188.0 

77.3 

93.0 

93.3 

13.1 

13.3 

12.3 

5.7 

18.2 

23.7 

12.1 

14.1 

14.1 

7,122 

11,375 

14,532 

1,357 

2,261 

2 ,968 

8,479 

13,636 

17,500 

40.6 

51.6 

70.5 

40.0 

43.5 

60.0 

40.5' 

50.3 

70.0 

20 

23 

28 

89 . 42 

178,00 

330 . 30 

13.0 

14.8 

13.2 


5.20.000 8,50,000 14,00,000 

1.80.000 3,50,000 7,00,000 

7,00,000 12,00,000 21,00,000 


62.3 63.5 64.7 

126.0 94.4 100.0 

75.0 71.4 75.0 


10.2 10.4 10.5 
17.7 14.2 . 15.0 
11.9 11.4 11.9 



-179- 


- ■£ „ 5 4 5 ^ 

..voruje cost 


i pupil 

1 



" '66.00 

(U 

i 42 .4 

51.5 

56.3 

average annual 
s alar, per 

500 

768 

1122 

1602 

teacher U>) 





.Percentage of 
teacher cost 
to total direct 
expenditure 

66.8 

72.8 

85.9 

86.0 

•Percentage of 
public 

expenditure to 

89.5 

89.8 

90.3 

90. 5 


total 

expenditure 


Note:- Projections have been don^ for enroln ent only. 
Source:- Education Department, Rajasthan. 



- 180 - 


Tablo Mo. B~3 - Statis tics of Elementary Teacher Training 
Schools in Rajasthan (1950-51 to 1980-81) 


\ 


Years ■ 







Item $1950-51 $1955-56 

5 . J 

l 1 

) 1960-61 

I 

J 

11966-66 $1970-71 

l(Estimates) }(Frojec- 
$ $ tions$ 

$1975-76 
f( Projec- 
ts tions) 

$1980-81 
$• . roj._c- 

$ tions L 

1, Number of 
Schools 

15 

13 


55 

69 

104 

125 

150 

2. Enrolment 









ti)~Boys 

982 

1015 


6031 

6120 




(ii) Girls 

293 

162 


, 547 

1830 




(iii) Total 

1275 » 

1177 


6578 

7950 

15600 

2 5000 

30000 

3. Number of I 

Teachers ! 

| 








(i) Hale 

88 

112 


488 

500 




(ii) Female 

25 

: 22 


24 

160 




(iii) Total 

113 

134 


512 

660 




4, Average number 
of students 
per teacher 

12 

9 


12 

12 

7 



5, Total Direct 
Expenditure 
(Rs. in lakhs) 

4.02 

6.15 


32.36 

45.11 




6. Average cost 315,10 
per pupil (Rs.) 

522.6 


501.2 

576.1 




7, Averago annual 
salary per 
teacher (Rs.) 

1941 

2360 


j 3300 

3400 




8. Percentage of 
teacher cost 
to total 
expenditure. 

54.2 

56.6 


40.0 

50.0 




9. Percentage of 
public cxpdr . 
to total oxpdr 

98.2 

* 

100.0 


93.7 

85.0 





Source:- education Department, 
Rajas than. 




-181- 

No. B-4 Statistics o f Hi 

School £5ucatlon in Til 

TT^50~'5 1 to”T58'0- 


Higher^ See o rid ary 
So t h an 


I tem 


1950-51 : l955"5rTT^o=TiT 
_ ( 


. number of 
schools | 185 

Enrolment 
( I Z-X.I ■ . 

I ncludi ng 
FJC) 

Si) Boys 15,641 
, Ui ) Girls 2, 020 

iii) Total 17 , 66 1 
i. force nt age 
increase in 
e nr o line n in 
the Plan 
period : 

(i) Boys 
/ (ii) Girls 
(lii) Total 
1. Average annual 
increase in 
e nrolment : 

, (i) Boys 
lii) Girls 
' i i i ) Total 
• . -«mnoer ci 

te achers ; 

^(i) Male 3,133 
uij Female 234 

hiii) Total , 3,367 

. .1 £ r cent age of 
trained ! 

teachers 

(i) Male 35.5 

(ii) Female 51.7 

Uii) Total 36,6 

' . Average 
number of 


273 


36,712 

•2,996 

39,708 


134.7 
48.3 

124.8 


18.6 

, 8.2 

17.6 


4,311 

150 

4,46i 


39.0 

51.0 
39.5 


537 


78, 197 
8, 272 

86,469 


113.0 

176.1 

117.8 


r.3 

2,2.7 

16.9 


■ 8,366 
1, 156 
9, 522 


43.9 
42. 4 
43.7 


Yea rs 

19T5-STT 1970-71 r"i'975-To if 
Estimates )(fro ,1 ectiors falset to ) 7: 


1,43,450 2,50,000 5,00,000 7 

19,550 50,000 1,00,000 2 

1,63,000 3,00,000 6,00,000 9 


83.4 

74.2 

100.0 

136.3 

155.7 

100.0 

88.5 

84.0 

100.0 


12.9 

11.8 

15.0 

18.8 

20.6 

15.0 

13.5 

12.9 

15.0 


10,8Q7 
1,593 
12 , 400 


61.4 

52.0 

60.0 


students per 


teacher 

•Total Direct 
•ope nditure 
(In lakhs) 

. Average annual 
increase in 
- xpe nditure in 

18 

23 

21 

25 

79.46 

101.03 

247.05 

410. 20 

• ear; period 
5 Average cost 


4.9 

19.6 

10.7 

; -r pupil(Rs) 133.3 
1 . m v e r ag e a n nu a 1 
salary per 

95.6 

124. 2 

130.0 

tocher (Ps) 

■••• Percentage 
x teacher cost 
“t 1 total Dir-ct 

1287 

1489 

1865 

26 4 5 

xv e ueiture 
Percentage of 

54.5 

65.7 

71.8 

80.0 


rub lie Expenditure 



i . dumber of 
Schools 

Enrolment 
(IX- XI 

, Including 
FJC) 

U) Boys 
(ii) Girls 
( iii ) Total 
i. Percentage 
increase in 
onrolmen*. in 
the Plan 
period: 

(i) Boys 
(ii) Girls 
(.iii) Total 



15,641 
2,020 
17 , 66 1 


4. Average annual 
increase in 
enrolment : 

(i ) Boys 
(ii) Girls 
'iii) Total 
. -umber el 
te achers s 


^i) male 3 , 133 

O-i ) Female 234 

.iii) Total , 3,367 

.-.er cent age of 1 

trained ! 

;e achers 

(i) Wale 35.5 

(.ii) Female 51.7 

viii) Total 36.6 

" . Average 
number of 
students per 
uachcr * 13 

• Jot al Di r e c t 
npenGiture 

(In lakhs) 79.46 


. Average annual 
increase in 
1 rpenditure in 
iian period 
Average cost 
: -r pupil (Rs ) 133.3 

1. Average annual 
salary per 

■ e acher (Rs) 1287 
... Percentage 
s. teacher cost 
uo total Bir.-ct 
xvenoiture 54.5 
: . Percentage of 
sub ii c B'xp, eaditure 
-'•0 total expendi- 

u f e ^ 7 1 . 5'f 

:ntej.Tro jv; ctio tis have 
erarolment jonly.: 


273 

I 

537 

7 28 

• 


36,712 

•2,996 

39,708 

78, 197 
8, 27 2 
86,469 

1,43,450 
19,550 
1 , 63,000 

2, 50,000 
50 , 000 
3,00,000 

5,00, 000 
1,00,000 
6,00,000 


134.7 

1 13.0 

83.4 

74.2 

100.0 

48.3 

176.1 

136.3 

155.7 

100.0 

124.8 

117.8 ' 

83.5 

84.0 

100.0 

18.6 

T.3 

12.9 

11.8 

15.0 

,8.2 

2g.7 

18.8 

20.6 

15-0 

17.6 

16.9 

13.5 

12.9 

15. C 

4,311 

■8,366 

10,807 



150 

1 , 156 

1,593 



4,46l 

9,522 

12,400 



39.0 

43.9 

61.4 



51.0 

42.4 

52.0 



39.5 

43.7 

60.0 



23 

21 

25 



O 

O 

247.05 

410. 20 



4.9 

19.6 

10.7 



95.6 

124. 2 

130.0 



GO 

AO 

1865 

2645 



65.7 

7 1 . 8 

80 . 0 



78.0 

34.6 

85.0 



been ma; 

4e for 

Source s 

"ducat ion - 

J iepart.se? 



■182- 


Table No.B-5 - 


- S t a't i 5 1 i c s of Se cond ar' y T e a c h e r T r ai n 1 i y 
dclle g e : s i n r?a;i as t* h a n 
. Ir950-5”i ’-tc 19B0 -^iT' 


I tem 


( Y e ars ' 

’ 1^50- 5 1 : W55 - 5 5": 1 1 965-63* ; 1 970—7 1 ° l975-7o- 

’ . , 5 ( estimates )(Ero ject- i (Fro ject 

: ; : . r ions) ; -ions) ■ 


1. Number of 


Schools 

2 . 

r 3 

4 

8 

. 12 

13 

1 

. ' nr ol merits 








U) toys 

139 

• 286 

441 

840 




ii) Girls 

20 

25 

62 

1 20 




ill) Total 

155 

311 

50 3 

960 

2, 200 

2, 500 

D ^ 

5 ^ 


Jpumber of 
Te achers 


,(i) Male 

14 

45 

56 

105 

(ii) Female 

- 

2 

4 

15 

iii) Total 

14 

!' 47 

60 

1 20 

4. Average No. 1 

of students 





per teacher 
>. Total Direct' 

1 1 

■ 8 

10 . 

9' 

Dxpenditure 

(Rs inlakhs) 
. Average Cost 

1. 22 

1.90 

5.72 

10. 1< 

per pupil 6l 

3 . Average, .salary 

2.0... . 

, 493.3 

% 

■8 83. 9" 

9 37 '.9 

per teacher "47 45 
'.Percentage of 

2335 

3860 

4209 

teacher cost 
; ;o t al 

expe nditure 

5 4.8 

57.6 

40.5 

50.0 


■ . 3' or cent age 
of public 
expenditure' ■ 
to total 

expenditure 41.6 


68.9 


78.9 


80.0 


Source : Education Department 
Rajasthan. 


N . B ; At the secondary stage, we do not need many 'places' 
for inservice programme. It is felt that the State 
may haya</o ne or two training college for some special 
programmes of in-service education that need such 
provi sion. 



Items 



i -133- 

.) tat is tics of Schools for Professional 
Education (Excluding Teacher Training) 


1950-51 l,?.§Psn6L 1965-66 1970-71 1975-76 1930-31 

. . ..I ' . (asti- (Pro- (Pro- (Pro- 

ra;i tes) jectims) jectims) jjetix::. 


Bchobls ’ 6 13 

Enrolment: 


(i) Boys 

798 

2388 

4780 

(ii) Girls 

- 

21 

75 

(Hi) Total - 

798 

: 2409 

4855 

3„ Number of 
Teacher s o 




(a) Male 

66 

272 

495 

(b) Female 

- 

- 

— 

(c) Total 

66 

272 

495 

1. Average 
dumber of 
s.t udents 
per teacher - 

I' 7 

8 

9 

3. Total j 

direct ■ > 

expenditure’ 

Ob.in lakhs) - 

2,59 

16 . 61 

29.20 

o. Average cost 
per pupil 

• . ' (Rs.) 

526,4 

701.1 

’ 751.2 

7. Average 
sa.lary per 
teacher 

1924 

2610 

3000 

3 . P.,c . of 
teacher 
costs to 
total exp. 

41.2 

42.8 

50.0 

J - 1 . c . o r 

puplic exp. 
to total 
expenditure - 

93.4 

90,. 6 

93.0 


s Education Department, Rajasthan. 



— 134 ** 

Table Ho. B-7 - Statistics -of Colleges for General Lducation 
in Rajasthan (1950-51 to 196.9-3$) 

.1 '■ '■■■'■ ' HM ll Hl i n. il n i ■ " ' ' "" * ' " 

\ Years 

\ , ' ' 

' -4 „ — _ ~ ^ r- r~ r- 4 


Item 

■> 1960-51 

' 1955-56 1 1960-61 ' 1965-66 

' 1 ' i is’imates') 

Number of Colleges 

27 

Ui .. ■ 

52 5 7 60 


2 „ enrolment at Univer- 


-i.O;/ stage 

(ij Boys 

5,9/9 

1-1,916 

9,892 

16,100 

(ii; Girls 

566 

1,851 

2,448 

4,635 

( illy Total. 

6 , 50 ! 5 

13,767 

12,540 

20,735 

5, Percentage increase 
in enrolment in plan 

period 





(i) Boys 

t. i,*J> 


(-) 17.0 

62,7 

(ii) Gii' Is 


227 ; S" 

32.2 

i.. ■ 89.5"; 

(iii) Total 


111.6 

(-) 10.4 

68,0 

4. Average annual 
increase in plan 

period 1 

(i) Boys | 

(ii) Girls 


13.6 

26.8 


10.3 

13.7 

(iii) Total 


16,1 

X 

11.0 

5, Number of Teachers 
(i) Male 

645 

1186 

1,524 

1,672 

(ii) Female 

73 

188 

263 

288 

(iii) Total 

718 

1374 

1,787 

1,960 

0* Average number of 

20 

23 

16 

17 

students per teacher 
7, Total Direct expdr. 

34,88 

66.42 

106.98, 

163.82 

(Rs , in lakhs) 





8 , Av er ag e annu al 


13.7 

10.0 

8.9 ■ 

increase in expdr. 
Average cost per 

2 35 , 0 

213.0 

365,0 

480.0 

pupil (Rs .) ■ ’ 

10 , Av er ag e annu al 

3,017 

3,061 

3,564 

4 , 500 

s alar y per teacher 
11 6 For centage of teacher 

66.2 

63.3 

59.5 

' 54.0 

cost to toiCal- expdr . 

12*. Percentage; of public 

73,5 

66.7 

67,1 . 

73,0 


expdr * to total expdr , 


' Source:- Education Department, 

Rajasthan, 

* It will be seen that the enrolment in 1960-61 has decreased flora 1955-56. 

This is merely due to transfer of 1st. year class of old Four-year course 
to school stage (in class XI or PUG), If this enrolment is added (which 
stood at 16,900 in 1960-61), the average annual increase in enrolment 
during second plan comes to 16,2 per cent. 



-135- 


T.'/ible j;o , 1-8 o : a ,.s . 
(1 x c e p ; T e ac he r Tr a'ln ’ : 


•cs of prof esc. '.on al Colleges 

.ng') .._n Rajas han (1950-51 to 1S65- 


13 ) 


_■ ",em 


“F 


Number of 


i 0ojJua-«$e?r' 

r 

9'U'olmen'c at 
t D.vorsity stage* 

) Roys 
i ) Girls 
o;:.)lotal 

.••’er carnage In 
‘o'avent In 
an period. 

) Boys 
t)G:r].s • 

voroge annual 
roase in enrol- 
it: Plan period . 

. Boys 
; G irls 

.)■ Total 

■ -i-ler of teachers 

i 

; hole 
.) tamale 
.'Total 

'■.'"-■■’age Number of 
-oris -per 


-6 


3763 

37 

3800 


x e ar s 


I - • • I i 

JL950-51 1 1955-56 1 1960-61 1 1965-66 

i i_ 1 . - 1 O r. ■ .ma • es ) 


10 


7357 

99 

7456 


18 


9010 

226 

9236 


21 


12540 

570 

13110 



95,0 

22.5 

39,1 


167.5 

128.2 

152.2 


96.2 

J 

23.8 

41. 9 


14.3 

4.3 

6.8 

* 

21.7 

18.1 

20.2 


14.4 

4.3 

7.3 

133 

184 

550 

1 

725 

- 

4' 

10 

45 

133 

188 

560 

770 

11 

10 

10 

9 


’oudl. Direct expen- 
nVcury (Rs a ^ lak’ns ) 7.20 


..or age annual 
'c.:e in 
v.n rrotire . 


15.80 53.30 

17.0 28.2 


93.20 

11.8 



478.7 

798.7 1023.4 

1740.0 

Avar age annual 

■ --- -y p : - r 
'■ a.. her . 

343 9 

3625 3 916 

5000 

.. .r cent age of 

a w- cos .. xo 
ta'i. expenditure 

rent age of 

57.2 

45.5 41.0 

41.0 

expend. l- 54.1 

'.'"o' ,o total expen- 

63.9 71.7 

75.0 



Source s Ecucat 

ion Dep ; 


* ! 


The enrolment 


in •'he professional colleges -given above induces 


.Le enrolmerv’ jin pr of egsi^nal colleges as such but also 'he enrol 
yr ore* s r ' (such as commerce classes or agricultural clu 



jrern 


1 950-51 

l . 


1 1955-56 ' 1960-61 ' 1965-66 


' IT’’ lumber of ... 

| OgjJL^gejr 

■ 8 Enrolment at 
'£ river sity stage* 

D. .) Boys 
<■«.!) Girls 

.'-arcen-cage in 
• ' '.‘cement in 
"Icn period ♦ 

(..) Boys 
)p-;.r].s • 

■al - 

, Tver age annual 
wo ase in enrol- 
in ?lan period. 


3763 

37 

3800 


1* 


7357 

99 

7456 


95,0 

167.5 

96.2 


18 


9010 

226 

9236 


22,5 

128.2 

23.8 


’ (Ls .ma ' es ) 


21 


12540 

570 

13110 


39,1 
152.2 
41. 9 


. Boys 

• 

14.3 

4.3 

6.8 

) Girls 

* 

21.7 

18.1 

20.2 

; Total 

1 

14,4 

4.3 

7.3 

i.bor of teachers 

i 

) bale 

133 

184 

550 

725 

.) J'emale 

- 

4 

10 

45 

• Total . • 

133 

188 

560 

770 

ege Number of 

to-s per 

11 

10 

10; 

9 


Total Direct expen- 
tvcur:; (Us, m lakhs) 7.20 


age annual 
c e in 
o . 1 1 ). yc tire . 


(j 


total expen- 


' ’C 


15.80 

17.0 


53.30 

28.2 


93.20 

11.8 


or age c&st per 
•pi;.. 

• 478.7 

798.7 

1023.4 

1740,0 

n age annual 
ry per 
a. her . 

3439 

3825 

3916 

5000 

•' -on a age of 
her cos.' to 
1 expend ^-ure 

57.2 

45,5 

41.0 

41,0 

- encage of 
expend l- 

54.1 

63.9 

71.7 

75,0 


Source; Education Dept , Rrgc-.st t.-r. 


roe enrolment! in •-he professional colleges "g'Xven above includes not 

•ho enrolment an professional 'Colleges as such but also "he enrolron 

• -••sf-assionjil (such as commerce classes or agricul ‘ur .1 cl isso 

- •: ho... ■ vi‘b. Colleges o . ai ,s pine Science ,Bu .'.in. so far as .-.he.s 'a. is • 

; o o 12 are concerned, these rela'.'e only no proiessronal colleg 


Of ' 



-136- 

Table No.B-9. - Statistics of Special Colleges in Rajasthan 

(195Q-51 to JL965-66) ' 


Y 

V . - * . , , 

Years 



Item : l"’l950^5i s - 

1 .1955-56 j':'"" 

' 1-960-51 

' 1965-60 

" ’ ' i 



- .1 

1 m timates 

1, dumber of Colleges J 

‘ ~ -. —-5 

■ 17 

18 

24 

2, Enrolment at 





University stage 





(i) Boys 

210 

552 

362 

630 

(ii) Girls 

10 

18 

19 

120 

Uii) •• 

-224 

570 

381 

750 

3. Percentage increase a.: 





in plan period 




r . 

( i) Boys 


162,8 

(-) 35,5 

74.0 

(ii) Girls 


80.0 

5.5: 

550.0 

(iii) Total v 

; i 


154.4 

(-) 33.2 

... 96.8 

4. averages' annual * 


- . 


" ■ 

increase in plan- 





period 


■ r- 



(i) Boys 


21,3 


11,7 

(ii) Girls 


12.5 



(iii) Total 

* 


20.5 


20.5 

5, Numberrof Teachers .. ' ; 


- ;; 

t 


(i) Hale 

82 ‘ ' 

115 

223 

320 

(ii) Female 

•• 

2 

2 

20 

(iii).. Total 

82 

117 

225 

340 

6 , Average, number of 

6' ' 

18- 

10 

12 

students per teacher-.. 





7, Total Direct expdr . 

1.88 

' 3.44 

6.68 

10.43 

(its in lakhs) 





8. Average annual 





inciease in plan,, ■ 
period ” 

j. - 

12.8 

14.2 

9.3 

# 

9, Average cost per- '- '' 

405.2 

107.0 

314,4 

251.6 

. pupil (ks .) 





10, Average annual., 
salary per teacher 

1,390 

2 ,065 

2,054 

2,300 

- - 

. , 

\ _ - ; . 


(Rs,)i ■: 


* * * ■ 



11, Percentage of 





tpacher cost to 
to till expdr . 

60.6 

73.7 

70.7 

75.0 

12, Percentage of 

46 : , 8 

66.8 ' 

73.3 

80.0 

public expdr. to. 
total expdr , " • 

* 4 ;• 

• 









■Source Education Department , 
Rajasthan, ■ 


vji ; 


Table No... B-~|Q 


- 187 - 

Statistics of Universities in 


Ran asthan 


Item 


1 


Year 


1950-51 1955-56 T9^0=Fi 19Z5-Z0" 

-A. ( Us ti mat- . s ) 


Number of Universi- 
ties /' ; 

2. Total Unrolme,Qt. . : 

(i ) Soys 

(ii) Girls •! 

(iii) Total 

3. Number of Teachers 

(i) Male 

(ii) Female 

(iii) Total 

v>' Aver age Number of : 

Students per ■ ; 

' ' teacher— 

... Total Pircct Expendi- 
ture (Rs in lakhs) 

6; 'Average annual -s alary 
per teahher (Rs) 


j^e r ce nt age 1 of j 1 facher 
cost to total 1 expend.ir 
ture I 

Percentage of Public 
’Expenditure to total 
expenditure [ 


18 

500 

6 37 

5700 

2 

9 

71 

920 

20 

598 

707 

6620* 

7 

18 

41 

512 

- 

- 

4 

50 

7 

18 

45 

562 

3 

33 

.15 

12 

6.43- 

- 9.98 

19.94 

120.80 


63 20 

' 7200 

5000*' 


11.4 

17.1, 

23.3 

26.1 

32. 1 

33.0 

48.0 




Souce ; Jducation Department, 
' ' 'Rajasthan. 




A grod deal of- undergraduate, enrolment is included here' because 
°I u? ns of local colleges., to the Univ rsity of Jodhpur as its 

reaching departments. .. 

du : e " to the inclusion of undergraduate enrolments in 
eodhmr University. ’ ‘ 



: - 188 - 

Tablo No, B,ll - Statistics of Pre- Primary Education in Rajas than 

; (1350-51 to 1980-81) 


Item 


1. Number of oohools 

f t Enr olment in Pr e- 
Pr i mar y c la:; s es 

U) bey a 
i'j--) Hr Is 
' L ■■■■■) Total 

;:•« Percentage increase 
in enrolment in 
plan period 
v i) boys 
Hi) dir Is 
(iii) Total 

4„ Average annual 

increase in enrolment 
in plan period 
(•) hoys 
lii) Girls 
(iii) Total 


J50-51 

1355-56 

1960-61 

1965-66' ' 
( Ls Lima-' 
.. tes) 

-1370-71 

(Projec- 

tions) 

1975-76 
(“Pr ejec- 
tions) 

1 v o C-* d 

(Froje 

C...On':- 

= 

3 

15- ... 

26 

50 

100. 

O r /. : > 

347 

1576 

2046 

2550 

6000 

11000 

24000 

191 

686 

1301 

2000 

4000 

9000 

3.6000 

538 

2262- j . 

3347 

4550 

10000 

20000 

400C-0 


5 v d- mber of Teachers 
J ) Male 
( ' i.) Female 
( ’ i ,i Total 

■5„ Percentage of 
Trained Teachers 
' ) Male 
(ij) Female 
(:>ii) Total 

'<■ . Average number of 


1 . Total Direct 

expenditure (in lakhs) 

' ! .>vo.TUge annual 
inersae in 
expenditure 


1 T. Average cost ,per 
pupil Ow.y 


11, -'verage annual 

■Salary per teacher (ip 

If . Percentage of teacher 
cost to total 
>■' xpenditure 

lb. Percentage of public 
expenditur e to total 
expenditure 


354.17 2 . 82 24.63 

253,16 89,65 53.7 

320.45 47.96 35.94 



35,3 

5.4 

4.5 


29.1 

13.7 

9.0 


33.5 

8.1 

6.3 

w 


"me- 

20 

- 

11 

ss 

.80 


11 

64 

100 



50.0 

55.0 

- 

- 

. 41.4 

45,0 

“ 

— 

42.2 

50.0 

- 

20 

21 

2.5 

- 

0.37 

1 . * 0 

2.6J 

- 


26.8 

13.6 

- 

166.7 

105.1 

114.0 

) 

976 

1225 

1400 


46.0 

56,6 

60.0 


93.0 

90.0 

93.0 



- 139 - 

T able Ms. B-12: Educa tio n of S che dule d 

Ca3tes arid~ Scheduled tribes { 1 9 S 0-6 j~) 


Population ofScheduled Castes - 33 , 59 , 640 
Percentage tc total Population - 16 . 7 

Population of Scheduled Tribes - 23 09 <447 
P cree nt age to tot al P o i: u lation - 11. 5 


•e of j Enrolment of 

t i t u 'ion Schedul ed Cas t e s 

’Soy's" ’ fCirls Total 


: Force ut age 
total enrol 

rHirls " : To t al : cliecV’li- 


: Enrolment of 
Scheduled Tribes 
: Bovs 


- 

o ; 


v 


: Castes 


■ cn eral 
’Tduca tio n 


: re- primary 


— 

- 

- 

- 

- 

0 . C 

Pri mar/ J r . 



38 , 35§ 





Basic 34, 

Mi ddle/Sr . 

5 28 

4, 131 


18,822 

1,079 

19,901 

4 . 4 

Basic 10 , 

445 

803 

1 1 , 248 

2,631 

150 

2,78-1 

3 . 6 

Secondary 6, 

160 

176 

6 , 336 

1 , 17 2 

17 

1 , 1 89 


Higher 

436 

1 1 

147 

1 4 1 

- 

141 

1 o 5 

Total (A) 51. 

569 

5 , 1 21 

56,690 

22,766 

1 , 246 

24 , 0 1 2 

H- , V 

Professional 








education 








Te achers 
Trai ni ng 

145 


145 

24 


24 

3 * 8 \ 

Medicine ft 
Vet .Sc. 

39 

• 6 

45 

2 

w 

2 

2.5 

Engineering ft 
Technology 

18 


18 

2 


2 

0 . 8 

.agriculture ft 
forestry 

4 

_ 

4 

2 


p 

0 * 6 

Commerce 
Musi c , Danci ng 

13 

■ - 

13 

6 

- 

6 


and Other Pine 







AX' t s 

1 

- 

1 

1 

1 

- 

1 

0 , 

C ri e nt al 


7 






3 tu d.i o o 

390 

397 

28 

- 

28 

3.6 

Techni cal, 
Industrial 
Arts ft Crafts 

53 

. 

53 

*'1 


3 

4 . 6 

Others 11,657 

1,090 

12,747 

3,899 

365 

■4, 264 

17.9 

Total (B) 12 , 

320 

1, 103 

1 3 , 4 23 

3,967 

365 

4,33 2 

1 3 . 9 


Or a nd Tot al 

H-OI 63,889 6,224 70,1 13 26,733 


1.6n 28,344 



Table i'io.B-13; Statistics of Schools, for' Handicapped Children. 


10 0-51 I 1955-56 1960-61 1965-66 1970-71 1975-76 " 

( lis ti- (Pro- (Pro- 

mates) .iections) .joe Lions) 


1, Number of 2 

Schools 

2 , Enrolment 

i,i) Boys 42 

U-i) dir Is 

Kid.) Total 42 

s, Humber of 
Teachers 

K) Kale 6 

(ii) Female 
Kii) Total 6 

4 . Average number 

of students ■ 7 
per teacher 

5, Total direct 

expenditure 0.21 

o A v ar ag e annu al 

cost per pupil 500.0 

(R«) 

leverage annual 
salary per 1001 

teacher (it) 

J. Percentage of 

salary cost 30.0 

to total 
expenditure 

■ > . Percentage of 

public expen- 100.0 
diture to total 
expenditure 


2 2 3 


l 


63 106 150 

5 7 10 

68 113 160 

7 15 - 20 


7 15 20 

9 8 8 


0.30 0.41 .. . 0.80 

441,2 362,8 200.0 


1250 1380 1580 

30.0 50.0 40.0 


100.0 100.0 100.0 


SO 


"l ?.o- '1 "" 

(pT'-’- 

.j oc tiv n s ) 


Source ; Department of Education, Rajasthan. 



-191- . • 




Table 

No, B~ 

14 • Growth’ 

of Literacy 






' !j " v - 

-.‘-J — 

'*'■ ■■ . 





No, 

{ District 

j Percentage of 
5 Literacy (1951 

{Percentage 
{Literacy( 1 

of {Growth 
9 61) |ov er 19 51 


■j . 

4-' V . _I 

1 ‘ Male 

Female Total {Male 
5 " 

Fema- 
le- - 

To- { in p, c, of 
tal 5 Literacy 

mi I.?) 




jrm: 

z he 


T9) 

i. 

Ganganagar 

13, 4 

2, 7 ^ 

k 

¥ 

8 . 5 

'■25, 4, 

6,6 

16, 8 

8 , 3 

• 2 . 

..Bikaner 

17. 4 

4. 5 

11 . 2 

23. 9 

11. 5 

23. 2 

12,0 

3. 

Churu 

15.. 5 • 

4. 6 

10. 3 

27. 5 

8 , 2 

18 , 1 

7. 8 

4’ 

Jhdnjhunu ■ 

17. 6 

3.3 ' 

10, 6 

31. 2 

■ 5. 5 

18, 7 

3, 1 

5. 

Alwar 

15. 2 

2. 7‘ 

9,3 

24. 5 

4.9 

15, 2 . 

5.9 

6 . 

Bharatppr 

14. 8 

2 .,’ 2 

9,0 

24.3 

4.4 

15. 2 

6 . 2 

7. 

Sawai Madhopuril.5 

l.'l 

6,6 

21.0 

3. 1 

12. 7. 

. 6 . 1 

. 8 . 

Jaipur ' 

.18.3 

4. 1 

11. 5 

27. 5 

8.3 

18 . 5 

7,0 

9. 

Sikar 

•13. 6 

2 , 1 

7.9 

. 26.3 

4,7 

15. 7 

7. 8 

. 1 °, 

Ajmer 

, 26. 7 

9.0 

18 . 2 

36.0 

13, 6 

25,3 

7. 1 

11 . 

T onk 

11.3 

2.0 

' 6,8 

13. 2 

3, 9 

11. 4 

" 4. 6 

12 . 

Ja iaalmer 

6 . 7 

0.9 

' 4. 1 

13.0 

2.0 

S.'l 

4.0 

13; 

Jodhpur 

19, 5 

5. 1 

13.0 

26,9 

9. 1 

18 . 6 

6,0 

14. 

Naga’ur 

10. 4 

1.9 

6,3 

21 . 1 

4.9 

13.3 

7.0 

15, 

Pall f : 

10 ,- f 7 

, 2. 1 ’ 

6 . 5 

21.9 

4,9 

13.6 

7. 1 

16. 

0 i ' : 

Banner 

11 , 3* 

O', '7. 

6.3 

' 12. 5 

1 . 6 " 

7. 5 

1 . 2 

17. 

Jalor e 

. 7. 1 

0 , 8 ... 

4. 1 

13.6 

1 . 8 

7.9 

3, 3 

:18. 

Sirohi 

■: 13, l" 

2 . 9 

• 8 *1 

21 . 2 - 

6,2 

13 v 9 

5. 8 

19. 

Bh ilwara 

12.0 

1 . 9 

7.0 

18, 1 

3, 5 • 

11 , 2 

4. 2 

20 . 

U da ipur 

13,. 4 

2.9 

8 . 2 

21, 7 

5. 3: 

13. 7 

5, 5 

21 , 

Ch ittorgarh 

12 , 2 

1.9 

7 . 1 

20. 6 

3. 8 

12 . 4 

5. 5 

22 . 

Dungarpur . 

9.0 

. 1.0 

’ 5. 1 

17,3 

3. 5 

,10. 4 

5.3 

23. 

Banswara 

' 7. 7 

' 1. 5 

■4,6 

14,0 

3,4 

8 , 8 

4, 2 

OA. 

Lj J. f 

‘Bundi . 

10 . 2 ; 

1. 7 

6 , 1 

IB. 9 

3, 9 

1 - 1 . 8 

5. 7 

■25, 

Kota 

19. 1 

' 4, 7 

' 12 . 1 

29. 1 

7. 8 . 

19. 1 

7.0 

26, 

Jhalawar 

’ 11.2 

2 . 1 

!' . 

6 , 8 

21 . 8 

4. 7 

13.6 

6 . 8 

, ¥ 

Rajasthan • ■ 

14,4 

3.0 

8.9 

23, 7 . 

5, 8 

15. 2 

6.3 



- 192 - 


Table No. B-15: '• Expenditure on Educational 

Institutions by ■ pb -j ect 



Direct Expenditure 

275.91 

442. 51 

994. 70 

1903. 78 


1. Universities 

6. 43 

9. 98 

19. 94 

120. 80. 9.2 

14. 8 43.3 

P.C. to total Exp. 

l(2. 1) 

(1,9) 

( 1. 6) 

(5. 7) 


2. Institutes of 

un iv er y i t y s t a tu s 

- 

- 

- 

36.00 - 


p.c. , to total exp 

• — 

- 

- 

( 1. 7) 


3. Boards of Education 3.85 

5.0 5 

17. 64 

27.00 5. 5 2 

28. 4 3,3 

p.c. to total exp 

. (1.2). 

(1>0) 

(1. 4) 

(1.2) 


4. Art s & Science 

34. 88 

66. 42 - 

106.98 

163. 82 13. 7 

10.0 3.9 


Coll eg es 


I. C.- to total exp.- ('ll. 2) ( 12. 7) _ (3.4) ( 7. 5) 

5. Colleges for 8 . 42 1 7. 70 ’ 59.02 102.30 16.0 27.2 11.6 

professional* 

education . . 

1. C. to .total' Exp. ( 2. 7) (3.4) .(4.7) (4.7) 

6. Colleges .for . . 1. 88 3, 44 6.68 10. 43 12. 8 14.2 9.3 

Spl. Educat ion , . 


P. C. to total Exp. (0.6) (.0.6) 

7 . H igh/H igh gr • 79 . 46 10 1 . 0 3 

Secondary * 

schools , | ■ 

F.C. to total. Exr, (25.5) (l9.’4) 

8. Middle Schools 48*54. 89,42 
.P.C. ,to total Exp. ( 1§. 6) ( 17,-lJ 

9. Primary Schools ’ 84. 30 130.79 

•P.C. 'to total Exj^. (271 1) (25. 1) 

10. Pre-primary' 

‘Schools. , “..0.37 

P.C. to total Exp. , - ( (o.l) 

11. Schools for : 4.02 8. 74 • 

professional 

education. < 

P- C- to total exp. , (1.3) (1. 7) 

12. Schools 'for 

Special e.duc a t,ion '4.13 9,57 


(0.5) (0.5). 

247.05 410.20 4. 9 19. 6 10.7 

(19.5) (19.0)- 

177.99 330.30 .13.0 14.8 13.2 

(14-.0) (15.2) 

293,97 608.20 9. 1 13. 4, 15.6 

( 23. 2) ( 28.0) 

1. 40 2. 65 . - • 26. 8" 13. 6 

( 0 . 1 )’ ( 0 . 1 ) 

48.97- 74.31 16.8 41.2,8.7 

’(3.9) .(3.4)- 

f * 

15.06 17. 77 18.3 9.5 3. 4 


B 


P.C. to total exp. (1.3) (1.8) (1.2). (0.8) 

Indirect Expenditure 35 . 38 79. 53 273. 20 266. 55 

1 . Direct In-spec- ’ib.68 17.92 31.41 3-1.10 10 . 8 11.9-;:- 

P'. C. to total •Exp.(3.4)( (3.4) (2.5) (1.4) 

2. 3u hidings - ' 13.08 3 7.-69 133.32 1(36.00 23. 6 29. 7* 

P.C. to total E^p-. (-4.3) (’7.2) ( 10. 8) (4.9) 


Ito^rni^onoesBlms 7 - 20 8i 72 30 - 73 40 -°° S’*-*** 4 5 - 4 

P.C. -to total Exp. - (2.3) (1.7) (2. 4) (1.8) 


4. Hostel Char.ges • 1.08 2. 24 4. 53 6. 4-5 15. 8 15. 1 7.3 

P.C. 'to total Exp. (0.3) (O’. 4) (0. 4) (0.3), 

Cl 1/r * _ „ 1 l _ _ . *■ ,, _ _ _ 



A. Direct Expenditure 275. 91 

1. Universities ' 6.43 

P.C. to total Exp. [(2.1) 

2. Institutes of 

un Iv er sitystatus 
p . c . . to total exp.; - 

3. Boards of Education 3.85 
p. cv to ' total exp. (1..2). 

4. . Ar t s & Sc Lone e 34. 88 

• Coll eg e s ‘ 

_ P. C. to "total exp. ( 11. 2) 

8. 42 


442. 51 

9.98 

(1.9) 


5. 05 
(1>0) 

66. 42: 
(12.7) 
17. 70 

(3.4) 
3, 44 


(. 0 . 6 ) 
79. 46 101.03 


B 


5. Colleges for 
prof ess ional • 
education 

P.o. t o .total* Ex p . ( 2 . 7 ) 

6. Colleges ^ for ■ . 1. 80 

Spl. Educat ion 

P.. C. to total Exp. (0.6) 

7. II igh/li igh £r 
Secondary 

schools . f ‘ 

* P.C.' to total. Plxn, (25.5) { 19 ,' 4 ) 

8. .Middle Schools 43, 54. 89.42 

.P.C. .to total Exp. ( 1§. 6) ( 17.-1) 

♦ * 

9. Primary Schools 84. 30 130. 79 
•P.C. * t o total Ex^. (27V 1) (25. lj 

10. Pre-primary’ 

’Schools. , ~ . 0.3 7 

P. C. to total Exp. , - (o. 1) ■ • 

11. Schools for : ’ 4.02 8.74- 

professional '*" • 

educatipn 

P’. C. to total exp. f ( l. 3) ( l. 7) 

12. SQhools’ for 
Special education '4.13 9.57 

P.C. to total exp. (1.3) (1.8) 

Indirect Expenditure 5 5. 38 79. 53 273. 20 266. 55 

1. Direction & In spec- ’io. 68 17.92 31.41 3-1. 10 10.8 11.9- 

u x on . ! - i. * 


994. 70 

1903. 78 




19.94 

120. 80. 

9. 2 

14. 8 

43.3 

(1.6) 

(5.7) 




- 

36.00 

- 

- 

. - 

. - 

(1. 7) 




17. 64 

27.00 

5. 5 : 

28.4 ' 

3.3 

(1.4) 

(1.2) 




106.98 

163. 82 

13. 7 

10.0 

S. 9 

(8.4) 

( 7. 5) 

> 



59.02 

10 2.30 

16.0 

27. 2 

11, 6 

. (4. 7) 

(4. 7) 




6.68 

10. 43 

12. 8 

14. 2 

9.3 

(0.5) 

(0.5) 




247.0 5 

410 . 20 

4.9 

19.6 

10. 7 

. (19.5) 

( 19. 0)*: 


• 


177.99 

330 . 30 

.13.0 

14. 9 

13. 2 

(14,0) 

(15.2) 




293,97 

60 8. 20 

9. 1 

19. 4. 

15, 6 

(23. 2) 

( 28.0 )’ 


’ 


1. 40 

2. 65 . 


26. 8" 

13. 6 

(0.1) 

(0. 1) 


• 


,48. 97 • 74.31 16 

i. 8 

41.2 , 

,8. 7 

’ (3.9) 

(3.4) 




15.06 17.77 18. 

3 . 9 

. 5 3 

. 4 


( 1. 2) . (0.8) 


. txon. '' * r ~ 

P.C. to total .Exp. (3. 4)( (3. 4) ; ( 2 . 5) (1.4) 


2. Buildings- 
P.C. to total 


13.08 37,69 138.32 1(36.00 23.6 29.7* 

P. H.3) (7,2) (10. 3) (4.9) 

3. Scholarships & other 7.20 8*. 72 30. 73 40.00 3.9 -28. *6 5.4 

financial. Concessions 

P.C, -to total lExp. ■ (2.3) ( 1 . 7) (2.4) ( 1. 8) 

4. Hostel Charges • i.08 2.24 4. 53 6.4*5 15,8 15. 1 7.3 

P.C. *to total Exp. (Q.3) (0*. 4) (0. 4) (0.3). 

5. Miscellaneous ■ ’ .3.34 12.96 68.21 83.00 31.2 39.4 4.0 

P.C. bo t otal Exp. ' ( 1. 1) ( 2.' 5) ( 5. 4) (3.8) 

■ ... "1 'Z a a <r^r\ C. a , ^ >~i It? 


Grand Total 


:-Th er o is a d.ec r ea s*e in 
exp end.iture. 


311/29 5 2 *2. 04 1 2 67.90 2 1 70.33 10 . 9 19 . 4 If 
Source; - Education d enactment Ha last 



A . Direct Expenditure 275. 91 

1. Universities 
P. G. to total Exp. 

2. In st itut es of 
university status 

p . c . , to total exp. 

3. Boards of Educatic 
P - c . to total exp. 

4. . j,rt s ■ & ■; Science 

• ■ Coll eges a . 

P. G.-- to total ; exp ei 

" 5. Coll eges for 
■professional • 
educa t ion 


6. Coll eges for 
Spl . Educ;it ion 


442. 51 994. 70 1903.78 


6. 43 

9.98 

19.94 

120. 80. 

9.2 14. 8 43.3 

|(2. 1) 

(1.9) 

(1.6) 

(5. 7) 


- 

- 

- 

36.00 


- 

- 

- 

(1. 7) 


n 3. 85 

5.0 5 

17. 64 

2 7.00 

5. 5 28. 4 3.8 

(1.2). 

(1:.0) 

(1.4) 

(1. 2) 


34. 88 

66. 42- 

106.98 

163. 82 

13. 7 10.0 8. 9 

11.2) 

(12.7) 

(0.4) 

( 7. 5) 

> 

8. 42 

17. 70 

59.02 

102. 30 

16.0 27.2 11.6 

(2. 7) 

(3.4) 

. (4. 7) 

(4. 7) 


1.80 

3, 44 

6.68 

10. 43 

12. 8 14. 2 9. 3 

(O'. 6) 

(.0.6) 

(0.5) 

(0.5) 


79. 46 

101.03 

247.05 

410 . 20 

4. 9 19. 6 10. 7 

25. 5) 

(19’. ’4) 

(19.5) 

( 19’. 0 ) ■ ■ 


46. 54 . 

89. 42 

177. 99 

330.30 

.13.0 14. '8 13.2 

( 15. 6) ( 17. ; 1) 

(14-.0) 

(15. 2) 

, 

84.30 

130. 79 

293,97 

60 8. 20 

9. 1 18. 4 15, 6 

(27V1) (25. 1) 

(23. 2) 

( 28.0 )' 



0.37 

1, 40 

2. 65 

26.8 13.6 


(0. 1) 

(0.1) 

(0. 1) 


‘1.0 2 

8. 74 

48. 97 • 

74.31 16 

i. 8 41. 2 ,8. 7 

. (1.3) (1. 7) 

(3.9) 

(3.4). 


•4. 13 

9. 57 

15.06 

It. 77 18. 

3 9. 5 3.4 


B 


7. High/Hign-r 
, • Secondary 
school 3 


8, .Middle Schools 
. P.G. to total Exp, 

9. Primary Schools ' " 

•P.G, to total Exjx 

10. Pre-pr. irnary ’ 

’Schools. 

P.G. to total Exp 

11. Schools for 
professional 
educa tipn 
P. C. to total exp 

12. SQhools'for 
Special e.ducat.ion 

P.G. to total exp. ( 1. 3) ( 1. 8) 

In d ir e c t Exp en d i tur e 35.38 79. 53 275. 20 256. 55 

1 . Direct Inspec- ’io. 68 17.92 31. 41 31. 10 10 . 8 11.9-::- 

P’.C. to total .Exp. (3. 4)1' (3.4) (2.5) (1.4) 

2. 3u ridings- 13.08 37,69 139.32 1C56.00 23. 6 29.7* 

P.G. to total E^p (• 4.3) ('7.2) (10.3) (4.9) 

3. Scholarships & other 7, 20 8; 72 30.73 40.00 3.9 -28. '6 5.4 

Ixnaacial Concessions , 

P,G,.to total Exp (2.3) (1. 7) (2. 4) (1.8) 

4. Hostel Charges 1.08 2. 24 4. 53 6.15 15.8 15.1 7.3 

P.G. 'to total Exp (0.3) (O'. 4) (0. 4) (0.3). 

5. Miscellaneous 3.34 12. 96 68.21 83.00 31.2 39. 4 4.0 

Fx C-. to to tal Exp. ( 1. 1) ( 2.‘ 5) ( 5. 4) (3.8) 

Grand Total _j Jll.~29 5 2 2.04 1 2 6 7. 90 2p7o733 10 . 9 19 ..4 n 

i c* t" : ' ■ 


( 1 . 2 ). ( 0 . 8 ) 


there Is a d,ecreas*e in 
exp en d-iture. 


Source: - Education •derartnent 



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